The quality assurance teams and managers supported the evolution of the
breast screening programme locally, and professional quality assurance
groups were developed with the relevant associations and royal colleges
at a national level. In 1990, a new post of national coordinator of the
NHSBSP was established, based at one of the regional heath authori-
ties. Mrs Julietta Patnick at the Trent Region in Sheffield was appointed,
and she is now the Director of the NHS Cancer Screening Programmes,
which includes the NHSBSP.
Overall development objectives may include employment creation, productivity, competitiveness,
GDP growth, price stability; and external payments equilibrium; as well as social, sectoral and regional
equality including poverty reduction. Positioning SME development policy against national targets makes
it easier to co-ordinate the relevant activities of different ministries and to prioritise goals. It also establishes
the basis for a tighter process of decision-making.
The cellular damage due to the hypoxi/re-oxigenative stress may trigger the production of
free radicals with consequent destabilization of the cell membranes (Calandrella et al., 2010).
As a matter of fact literature data show that the ischemic insult at retinal level activates
iNOS which leads to the production of nitrogen oxide (Goldstein et al., 1995; Geyer et al.,
1995): this compound is cytotoxic at high concentration and causes lipid peroxidation (Crow
et al., 1996; Ullrich et al., 2000).
In addition, the federal government pays administrative expense
subsidies to insurance companies as an allowance that is intended to
cover their expenses for selling and servicing crop insurance policies. In
turn, insurance companies use these subsidies to cover their overhead
expenses, such as payroll and rent, and to pay commissions to insurance
agencies and agents. Companies also incur expenses associated with
verifying—adjusting—the amount of loss claimed. These expenses
include, for example, loss adjusters’ compensation and their travel
expenses to farmers’ fields.
The components of effectiveness are organized
around eight clinical areas. Naturally, some
measures will cross components; for example,
receipt of discharge instructions for heart failure is
related to effectiveness of heart disease care as
well as care coordination. For the purposes of this
document, measures with clinical context are
presented with the effectiveness measures. Other
measure sets describe health care delivery and
systems issues and are discussed together.
Poverty is higher in remote rural areas and in inner cities,
but the rural elderly are much more likely to be poor than
those living in urban areas. Thirteen percent of rural elders
60 years and older were poor in 2000, compared with
nine percent of elders living in a metro area . Thus we
expect to find the most evidence of impeded access for the
poor elderly who reside in rural areas. We interact the proportion
of elderly in poverty with the proportion in rural
areas to include in the model.
Besides assembling a wide assortment of products, the wholesaler also may extend short-term
credit to buyers. Often he assists retailers in solving merchandising problems. Sometimes
wholesalers prepackage products.
Retailing is the final link in the distribution chain. Several hundred thousand retail foodstores
and additional thousands of department, dry goods, and cigar stores and other specialty stores
throughout the country satisfy day-to-day consumer requirements for food and other products of
The commercial success of independent youth-oriented
pictures such as those of AIP was matched by that of some more edgy
and disturbing independent productions in the same generic territory,
The response of Hollywood was to embrace some of this material. A
landmark move was the decision by Columbia to distribute Easy Rider
(1969), a project originally destined to become another biker picture
for AIP. The success of Easy Rider helped convince the studios to invest
in a new generation of ﬁlmmakers seen to be more in touch with
the youth audience affected by the 1960s counterculture. Hollywood
learned other lessons from the independents in this period.
Adenoviral vectors serve as an excellent gene delivery system for a variety of cell
types or organs for gene therapy and immunization applications. In the second section
‘Adenoviral Vector’, chapter five introduces the history of adenovirus research, the
advantage and disadvantage of adenoviral vector, the adenoviral vector induced
innate immune response, the evolution of adenoviral vector system, the application of
adenoviral vector in gene therapy, and adenoviral vaccine.
As editor in chief of this book, I would like to acknowledge the efforts made by all of
the contributing authors and the entire editorial team in the publishing of this book
especially Ms Romina Skomersic for her very precious collaboration. Their dedication
to the publication of the most contemporary and comprehensive scientific data has
resulted with this excellent work. I would like to dedicate this book to all my
colleagues - surgeons, pathologists, oncologists, radiologists and anethesists at Sahloul
The third section deals with neuroprotection. As we have discussed above, this has
become a kind of Holy Grail for stroke scientists. Contributors to this section reviewed
the state of the art in this quest or reported their experience in exploring novel ways of
neuroprotection. Their work will be a useful addition to the store of knowledge that
the modern Parsifal will exploit to finally find his Grail.
I am most grateful to the Authors of the various chapters, who have expertly written
and patiently revised their very interesting work for this book.
As the entertainment industry has become an increasingly global
enterprise in recent years, Hollywood continues to occupy the central
role in the production and commercialization of culture. Just as classi-
cal Hollywood’s domination of the movie industry a half-century ago
induced critic Gilbert Seldes (1978) to say that “the movies come from
America,” so might one argue today that “entertainment comes from
America”—and, more specifically, from Hollywood.
Trypanosomiasis, usually caused in camels by the protozoan Trypanosoma
evansi, is a major clinical disease and cause of economic loss. Unlike other
trypanosome species, T. evansi does not have to undergo part of its life
cycle in tsetse flies and it is transmitted mechanically by other biting flies.
These flies are usually of the tabanid group, mainly of the genus Tabanus,
but some so called stable flies of the genus Stomoxys, also transmit the
disease. In some of East African countries, the major tabanid vectors are
Philoliche zonata and P. magretti. ...
You’ll make money on a mutual fund if the value
of its investments goes up and you sell the fund
for more than you paid for it. This is called a
capital gain. If you sell the fund for less than
you paid for it, this is called a capital loss.
Depending on the fund, you may also receive
distributions of dividends, interest, capital
gains or other income the fund earns on its
investments. However, unless you ask for the
distributions to be paid in cash, the fund will
usually reinvest them for you. ...
The Indian aged population is currently the second largest in the world after China (100
million). The absolute number of 60 and over in India will likely to increase from 77 million
in 2001 to 137 million by 2021 (United Nations, 2003). The decadal growth rate among
elderly population during 1991-2001 is about 40 percent – double than the general population
growth of 21 percent. The percentage of elderly in India has increased from 5.4 percent in
1951 to 6.4 percent in 1981 and further to 7.4 in 2001. If the percentage of elderly population
is above seven percent in...
Benzene is a colourless, liquid, flammable, aromatic hydrocarbon that is a component of
petrol, or may result from incomplete combustion of fuels.
Benzene, a natural component of crude oil, is emitted from a range of industrial and
combustion sources. The major source of benzene is motor vehicles—both vehicle
exhaust (contributing approximately 75% to 80% of emissions) and evaporative
emissions (including evaporation losses from motor vehicles and evaporation losses
during the handling, distribution and storage of petrol).
It is clear that levels of financial literacy vary within countries and it is therefore useful to know more
about how they vary across particular socio-economic groups.
The findings of analysis by socio-demographics show that women have much lower levels of financial
knowledge than men in almost all of the countries studied (Hungary being the exception). So for example,
whilst 67% of men in the UK gained a score of 6 or more on the knowledge measure, just 40% of women
achieved the same; in Germany the corresponding percentages are 67% and 50%.
Women are also less likely...
Before deciding whether to buy a good or service, consumers often have the opportunity to gather
information or simply spend time thinking about how much they would enjoy the good. Gathering or
processing information is costly, in terms of money, time, and e¤ort. A rm, through its advertising,
product design, and marketing strategies, can a¤ect these costs and make it easier or harder for
consumers to assess whether a product is a good match for their needs or preferences.
Sweden's government has published its budget proposal for 2005 re-confirming its
"strategy for transforming Sweden into an ecologically sustainable society". The budget's
key environmental feature is a continuation of the country's ambitious green tax shift
In 2005, the increase in environmental taxes will total about SKr 3.3 billion (€364m).
Many of these will fall on road transport, including increases averaging SKr 340 and SKr
100 in vehicle taxes on petrol-driven and diesel-driven cars respectively.
Vehicle taxes on light trucks and light buses will rise by 40%.