Animal behavior

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  • In this chapter, students will be able to understand: How behaviors are the result of natural selection, how innate and learned behaviors increase survival and reproductive fitness, how organisms use communication to increase fitness, the role of altruism and inclusive fitness in kin selection.

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  • The Science of Animal Agriculture is directed toward teaching the basic science concepts involved in the production of agricultural animals. This newly revised edition contains the latest up-to-date information regarding the scientifi c aspect of the agricultural industry. All facets of modern agriculture are based on science. From the most rudimentary cultural practices to the most complicated biotechnology techniques, scientifi c research has produced the phenomenon known as American agriculture....

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  • Chapter 51 - Animal behavior. This chapter distinguish between the following pairs of terms: kinesis and taxis, circadian and circannual behavioral rhythms, classical and operant conditioning; explain how associative learning may help a predator avoid toxic prey; describe how cross-fostering experiments help identify the relative importance of environmental and genetic factors in determining specific behaviors.

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  • It is sometimes said that committees of more than seven are less efficient than individuals, but the Fifth International Veterinary Behavior Meeting would never have succeeded if it was down to the efforts of a single individual or even a small committee. It is testament to the exceptional team work of individuals within many committees and their skillful management and leadership that we are able to produce this latest volume. We are indebted to everyone who has helped in whatever way to make this meeting a success and helped these biennial meetings grow each time.

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  • Ebook Grzimek's animal life encyclopedia Volume 6 Amphibians presents what is an amphibian?, early evolution and fossil history, structure and function, larvae, behavior, amphibians and humans, reproduction, order anur, order caudata, order gymnophiona.

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  • One way scientists find out about the world is by asking questions. Science is an organized way of studying things and finding answers to questions. There are many types of science. The names of the sciences describe what is being studied. For example, a life scientist might study the millions of different animals, plants, and other living things on Earth. Life scientists who study plants are botanists. Those who study animals are zoologists.

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  • Many of the images reveal inaccessible places that few have seen and record animal behavior that has never been filmed or photographed before. With the help of this highly advanced technology and the world's premier wildlife photographers, the book takes us on a spectacular journey from the world's greatest rivers and impressive gorges, to its mightiest mountains, hidden caves and caverns, and vast deserts.

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  • Tissue culture was first devised at the beginning of the twentieth century [Harrison, 1907; Carrel, 1912] (Table 1.1) as a method for studying the behavior of animal cells free of systemic variations that might arise in vivo both during normal homeostasis and under the stress of an experiment. As the name implies, the technique was elaborated first with undisaggregated fragments of tissue, and growth was restricted to the migration of cells from the tissue fragment, with occasional mitoses in the outgrowth.

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  • Reverse engineering encompasses a wide spectrum of activities aimed at extracting information on the function, structure, and behavior of man-made or natural artifacts. Increases in data sources, processing power, and improved data mining and processing algorithms have opened new fields of application for reverse engineering.

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  • Many pesticides are being highly stable and continue to kill the target and the host long after the application which is both advantageous and disadvantageous. Thus, the detection and assays of pesticide residues have significant role to know level of residual pesticide molecules. The present edition of volume attempted to consolidate significant advancement of research at worldwide on pesticide residues. The status of pesticide usage pattern and residue level in food from plant and animal origin at different regions are described in-depth in the chapters....

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  • Nutrition during childhood and adolescence is essential for growth and development, health and well-being. [1,2] Further, eating behaviors established during childhood track into adulthood and contribute to long-term health and chronic disease risk. [3,4] Numerous studies have consistently documented that dietary intake patterns of American children and adolescents are poor and do not meet national dietary goals. [5-8] In addition, US food consumption trend data show a shift over the past few decades.

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  • Our goal in creating the Methods & New Frontiers in Neuroscience Series is to present the insights of experts on emerging experimental techniques and theoretical concepts that are, or will be at the vanguard of Neuroscience. Books in the series will cover topics ranging from methods to investigate apoptosis, to modern techniques for neural ensemble recordings in behaving animals.

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  • The last three rows demonstrated the crucial counterintuitive prediction that small prey would be excluded from the diet, independently of their encounter rate, if the encounter rate with large prey were above a certain quantifiable threshold. Those were heady days! Setting aside the fact that the small prey were not totally ignored, it seemed as though a very simple, testable model, derived from a few starting assumptions about rate maximization and constraints on foraging, could actually predicthowan animal responded in an experiment. It’s hard to overstate the excitement at the time....

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  • Chapter 2 A Critical Review of the Effects of Marking on the Biology of Vertebrates Vertebrates often are marked to facilitate identification of free-ranging individual animals or groups for studies of behavior, population biology, and physiology. Marked animals provided data for many of the topics discussed in this volume.

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  • Chapter 10 Measuring the Dynamics of Mammalian Societies: An Ecologist’s Guide to Ethological Methods Today, biologists interpret behavior within a context fortified by theories of cognition, behavioral evolution, and games, and any or all of four processes may lead to cooperation.

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  • would like to introduce this encyclopedia of psychology by focusing on both twenty-first century and more distant historical contexts, while additionally highlighting the scope and depth of the work of psychologists, their students, and their supporters. As reading these volumes will show, psychology is a diverse and large field. It is also a science. I remind readers that most of the research described in these volumes is completed through the silent contributions of tens of thousands of volunteers as well as nonhuman animal participants.

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  • “In striving for entertainment, our imagination must have neither limits nor bounds. It has always been a basic need in creative efforts. ‘Imagination,’ wrote Stanislavsky, ‘must be cultivated and developed; it must be alert, rich and active. An actor (animator) must learn to think on any theme. He must observe people (and animals) and their behavior—try to understand their mentality.’ “To one degree or another, people in our audience are aware of human and animal behavior. They may have seen, experienced or read about it.

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  • A variety of scientific disciplines have set as their task explaining mental activities, recognizing that in some way these activities depend upon our brain. But, until recently, the opportunities to conduct experiments directly on our brains were limited. As a result, research efforts were split between disciplines such as cognitive psychology, linguistics, and artificial intelligence that investigated behavior, while disciplines such as neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and genetics experimented on the brains of non-human animals.

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  • Seismic – At the Weyburn Field, multi-component 3-D surface seismic time-lapse surveys were conducted at intervals of approximately 12 months, starting prior to the commencement of CO2 injection in 2000, and repeated in 2001 and 2002. The resultant time-lapse images (primarily seismic amplitude changes) acquired at Weyburn clearly map the spread of CO2 over time within the reservoir, fulfilling a key objective set at the outset of the project.

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  • Over the last few years there have been dramatic advances in plant molecular genetics and these developments have provided scientists involved in the conservation of plant genetic resources with a range of new techniques for their research. Nowadays techniques are available to analyze variations in the DNA level of plants and animals or other organisms. Differences in gene sequence can be directly observed and described - a degree of precision previously impossible to achieve.

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