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  • Có rất nhiều trong trái cây, rau củ, và ngũ cốc. Flavonoids được chia thành nhiều nhóm nhỏ, chúng bao gồm các anthocyanidins, chủ yếu tạo các màu đỏ và xanh trong trái cây, nước trái cây, rượu vang và các loài hoa; các catechin, có nhiều trong lá trà; các flavonones và flavanone glycosides, tìm thấy trong cam quýt và mật ong; và các flavon, flavonols và flavonol glycosides, có nhiều trong lá trà, trái cây, rau củ, mật ong.

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  • Phenolic compounds represent a large group of molecules with a variety of functions in plant growth, development, and defense. Phenolic compounds include signaling molecules, pigments and flavors that can attract or repel, as well as compounds that can protect the plant against insects, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Most phenolic compounds are present as esters or glycosides rather than as free compounds. Tannins and lignin are phenolic polymers.

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  • Flavonoids have a common structure consisting of 2 aromatic rings that are linked together by 3 carbon atoms that form an oxygenated heterocycle. This large group, which constitutes the most prevalent in the human diet, is divided into 6 subgroups, including flavonols (e.g. quercetin), flavones (e.g. apigenin), isoflavones (e.g. daidzein), flavanones (e.g. hesperetin), anthocyanidins (e.g. cyanidin), and flavanols (catechins and proanthocyanidins). Non- flavonoid polyphenolics include phenolic acids (e.g. chlorogenic acid), lignans (e.g. secoisolariciresinol) and stilbenes (e.g.

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  • Flavonoids Flavonoids constitute a large family of polyphenols that contribute to the aroma, taste, and color of fruits and vegetables. Major groups of dietary flavonoids include anthocyanidins in berries; catechins in green tea and chocolate; flavonols (e.g., quercitin) in broccoli, kale, leeks, onion, and the skins of grapes and apples; and isoflavones (e.g., genistein) in legumes. Isoflavones have a low bioavailability and are partially metabolized by the intestinal flora.

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