Anthropogenic air

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  • In order to understand and manage our air quality resources, it is necessary to gain a fundamental understanding of the principles that govern our ability to do so. From a local perspective, it may be considered desirable to install huge fans in order to “blow the smog away,” but from a technological and scientific perspective it is not feasible. Likewise, from a regional or continental perspective, it is not acceptable to merely transfer air contaminants from one location to another one by dilution or “blowing it away.”...

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  • Air pollution has been a major transboundary problem and a matter of global concern for decades. High concentrations of different air pollutants are particularly harmful to large cities residents, where numerous anthropogenic activities strongly influence the quality of air. Although there are many books on the subject, the one in front of you will hopefully fulfill some of the gaps in the area of air quality monitoring and modeling, and be of help to graduate students, professionals and researchers....

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  • Anthropogenic air pollution constitutes of many substances. Greenhouse gases absorb and reflect some of the infrared parts of solar radiation reflected from the earth surface thus causing the troposphere to be warmer. Among others, these substances are carbone-dioxide, water vapour, hydrogen oxides, nitrogen-oxides and methane. Beyond causing warming, most of these gases are poisonous to the Earth’s biosphere. Besides greenhouse gases, there are a few more poisonous substances which have anthropogenic sources.

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  • Air pollution has always been a trans-boundary environmental problem and a matter of global concern for past many years. High concentrations of air pollutants due to numerous anthropogenic activities influence the air quality. There are many books on this subject, but the one in front of you will probably help in filling the gaps existing in the area of air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure, health and control, and can be of great help to graduate students professionals and researchers.

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  • The atmosphere is a mixture of several gases surrounding the earth's crust and has a layer that protects and preserves the lives of human beings and keeping the materials in good condition and functionality. Once damaged, by pollutants emitted from anthropogenic and natural sources, the atmosphere reduces the levels of protection due to formation of the ozone layer. The presence of contaminants in indoors and outdoors influenced by climatic factors, has a negative effect on human health and the durability of materials. Indoor air quality is a reflection of the outside air....

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  • Evidence grows daily of the rapid changes in climate due to human activities and their impact on plants and animals. Plant function is inextricably linked to climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. On the shortest and smallest scales the climate affects the plant’s immediate environment and thus directly influences physiological processes. On longer and larger time and space scales climate influ- ences species distribution and community composition and determines what crops can be viably produced in managed agricultural, horticultural and forestry ecosys- tems.

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  • Patterns of particle emission are different from those of the other pollutants included in the first phase of the EU Framework Directive because of their extreme diversity of origin and source, both primary and secondary, natural and anthropogenic, and there are significant differences in levels between Member States and regions within states. The limited amount of reliable PM10 data makes it difficult to establish a comprehensive overview of PM10 concentrations and trends in Member States.

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  • Secondary aerosol is produced by the oxidation of primary gases (sulphur dioxide, SO2, nitrogen oxides, NOx, and volatile organic compounds, VOCs,) to sulphuric and nitric acid, and organic vapours, followed by their gas-particle conversion [26, 77]. Finally, some of these acidic gases can be neutralised by reaction with ammonia gas or calcium carbonate (calcite) forming secondary aerosol (ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, calcium sulphate, calcium nitrate).

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  • Airborne suspended particulate matter can be of primary origin, i.e. emitted directly into the atmosphere or of secondary origin, i.e. formed in the atmosphere from gaseous species by either homogeneous or heterogeneous chemical reactions. Due to these different emission sources, particles have different chemical composition and size distributions. Depending on their size, particles have a different potential to be transported over either long or short distances [1]. Primary particles can be produced from either natural or anthropogenic sources.

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  • Airborne suspended particulate matter (PM) can be either primary or secondary in nature. Primary particles are emitted directly into the atmosphere either by natural or anthropogenic processes, whereas secondary particles have a predominantly man made origin and are formed in the atmosphere from the oxidation and subsequent reactions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and VOCs.

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  • Particulate pollution is a term that covers a broad spectrum of specific pollutant types that permeate the atmosphere, where sources can be both natural and anthropogenic. Within urban areas, exhaust fumes from road traffic have been the most significant source (Watkins, 1991). PM10 is commonly classified into two further size groupings: coarse and fine. The coarse fraction includes all suspended particles in the PM10 size range above 2.5m in aerodynamic diameter, whilst the fine fraction contains the remaining.

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  • Nowadays, environmental issues including air and water pollution, climate change, overexploitation of marine ecosystems, exhaustion of fossil resources, conservation of biodiversity are receiving major attention from the public, stakeholders and scholars from the local to the planetary scales. It is now clearly recognized that human activities yield major ecological and environ- mental stresses with irreversible loss of species, destruction of habitat or cli- mate catastrophes as the most dramatic examples of their effects.

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