Human activities may seriously affect the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Pathogen
organisms, nutrients, heavy metals, toxic elements, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and
various other organic micropollutants enter to aquatic environment through a range of
point and diffuse sources. The presence of these compounds has adverse impacts on
aquatic biota. It is well recognised that the distribution and the abundance of various
species in aquatic systems are directly related to the water quality and hydrological
Large lakes are important because of their size and
ecological distinctiveness, as well as their economic and
cultural value. Optimal management of them requires a
proper understanding of anthropogenic impacts, both on
the lake ecosystems, as such and on the services they
provide for society. The specific structural and functional
properties of large lakes, e.g. morphology,
hydrography, biogeochemical cycles, and food-web
structure, are all directly related to their size.
Evidence grows daily of the rapid changes in climate due to human activities and
their impact on plants and animals. Plant function is inextricably linked to climate
and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. On the shortest and smallest scales
the climate affects the plant’s immediate environment and thus directly inﬂuences
physiological processes. On longer and larger time and space scales climate inﬂu-
ences species distribution and community composition and determines what crops
can be viably produced in managed agricultural, horticultural and forestry ecosys-
Global Warming has become perhaps the most complicated issue being faced by world leaders. Thus, it requires field of attention for many modern societies, power and energy engineers, academicians, researchers and stakeholders. The so-called consensus in the past century anthropogenically induced Global Warming, has recently been disputed by rising number of climate change panelists.
Patterns of particle emission are different from those of the other pollutants included in the first phase of
the EU Framework Directive because of their extreme diversity of origin and source, both primary and
secondary, natural and anthropogenic, and there are significant differences in levels between Member
States and regions within states.
The limited amount of reliable PM10 data makes it difficult to establish a comprehensive overview of
PM10 concentrations and trends in Member States.
Island biogeography is an important subject for
several reasons. First, it has been and remains a
field which feeds ideas, theories, models, and tests
of same into ecology, evolutionary biology, and biogeography.
This is because islands provide natural
scientists with model systems—replicated and simplified
contexts—allowing us to isolate particular
factors and processes and to explore their effects.
Human activities have a large and important impact on the environment.
Naturally occurring elements or compounds are often concentrated and
redistributed in the environment through industrial processes, power production,
and consumer activity. For example, lead, which is found in
naturally occurring mineral deposits, has become a major pollutant through
its use in batteries, paints, and gasoline additives.
The state of aquatic ecosystems reflects the general state of the biosphere. The situation
in the biosphere affected by anthropogenic factors was characterized as “a slow
explosion” (Fedorov 1987). The global change in the biosphere and climatic system
of the Earth is a manifestation of this “slow explosion” (World Resources
1990–1991, Izrael et al. 1992).
Over the past decade, our understanding of plant adaptation to environmental
stress, including both constitutive and inducible determinants, has grown con-
siderably. This book focuses on stress caused by the inanimate components of
the environment associated with climatic, edaphic and physiographic factors
that substantially limit plant growth and survival. Categorically these are abiotic
stresses, which include drought, salinity, non-optimal temperatures and poor
Nowadays, environmental issues including air and water pollution, climate
change, overexploitation of marine ecosystems, exhaustion of fossil resources,
conservation of biodiversity are receiving major attention from the public,
stakeholders and scholars from the local to the planetary scales. It is now
clearly recognized that human activities yield major ecological and environ-
mental stresses with irreversible loss of species, destruction of habitat or cli-
mate catastrophes as the most dramatic examples of their eﬀects.
The highly specialized nature of marine mammals when compared with their terrestrial counterparts, the environment in which they live, and the impact of humans on them throughout history and at the present, have made of the scholarship on these creatures something unique in itself. Therefore, it is not surprising that many researchers have also taken a distinctive approach to their study. This volume is aimed at providing a glimpse at such diversity of views and approaches while delivering valuable information on marine mammalogy.