For the last 60 or so years the chemotherapy of bacterial infections has been dominated
by natural products and their semi-synthetic variants. Although the term antibiotic
was initially used exclusively to describe those anti-bacterials of natural or
semi-synthetic origin, it has become broadened in common usage to include antibacterial
agents of purely synthetic origin as well. The emphasis of this chapter will be
on the discovery of novel prototype structures that represent the different classes of
AlthoughL-amino oxidase (LAAO; EC 184.108.40.206) has been reported to be a
potent antibacterial agent, the mechanism responsible for its antibacterial
activity has not been identified. The present study aimed to identify the
mechanism responsible for the antibacterial activity of Th-LAAO, an LAAO
recently isolated from the extracellular proteins of Trichoderma harzianum
ETS 323, at the same time as elucidating the nature of this enzyme.
Bacteria are non-chlorophyllated unicellular organisms that reproduce by fission and do not
present nuclear envelope. Gram´s stain is a staining technique used to classify bacteria based
on the different characteristic of their cell walls. Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria
are determined by the amount and location of peptidoglycan in the cell wall, exhibiting
different chemical compositions and structures, cell-wall permeabilities, physiologies,
metabolisms, and pathogenicities.
Antibiotic agents have been in widespread and largely effective therapeutic use since their
discovery in the 20th century. However, the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens now presents
an increasing global challenge to both human and veterinary medicine. It is now widely acknowledged
that there is a need to develop novel antimicrobial agents to minimize the threat of further antimicrobial
β-Lactum antibiotics constitute an important class of antibacterial agents being used extensively for both humans and food-producing animals to treat or prevent infections. The drugs occasionally cause human deaths due to anaphylactic shock during medical treatments, especially when they are parenterally administered without their prior intracutaneous tests. These cases are usually handled as medical accidents (malpractice), and subjected to autopsies and analysis of the drugs used. These antibiotics are composed of cephems ( Table 10.1) and penicillins ( Table 10.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 127. Treatment and Prophylaxis of Bacterial Infections
Treatment and Prophylaxis of Bacterial Infections: Introduction
The development of vaccines and drugs that prevent and cure bacterial infections was one of the twentieth century's major contributions to human longevity and quality of life. Antibacterial agents are among the most commonly prescribed drugs of any kind worldwide. Used appropriately, these drugs are lifesaving.
Our goal in creating the
Dermatology: Clinical & Basic Science Series
is to present
the insights of experts on emerging applied and experimental techniques and theoretical
concepts that are, or will be, at the vanguard of dermatology. These books
cover new and exciting multidisciplinary areas of cutaneous research, and we want
them to be the books every physician will use to become acquainted with new
methodologies in skin research. These books can be also given to graduate students
and postdoctoral fellows when they are looking for guidance to start a new line of
Incorporating relevant theoretical and empirical findings, this paper aims to identify and conceptualize the
primary dimensions which influence the consumers‘ individual perception of luxury as a first step leading towards
a scale to measure luxury value cross-culturally. According to Hassan and Katsanis (1994) and Tse et al. (1988),
we suggest that the needs of luxury consumer segments cross national borders and that common structures in
luxury value perception exist cross-culturally – even if the relative importance of the decision determinants may
The development of vaccines and drugs that prevent and cure bacterial infections was one of the twentieth century's major contributions to human longevity and quality of life. Antibacterial agents are among the most commonly prescribed drugs of any kind worldwide. Used appropriately, these drugs are lifesaving. However, their indiscriminate use drives up the cost of health care, leads to a plethora of side effects and drug interactions, and fosters the emergence of bacterial resistance, rendering previously valuable drugs useless. ...
Adverse drug reactions are frequently classified by mechanism as either dose-related ("toxic") or unpredictable. Unpredictable reactions are either idiosyncratic or allergic. Dose-related reactions include aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity, linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia, penicillin-induced seizures, and vancomycin-induced anaphylactoid reactions. Many of these reactions can be avoided by reducing dosage in patients with impaired renal function, limiting the duration of therapy, or reducing the rate of administration.
Haem (protohaem IX) analogues are toxic compounds and have been con-sidered for use as antibacterial agents, but the primary mechanism behind
their toxicity has not been demonstrated. Using the haem protein catalase
in the Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalisas an experimental
system, we show that a variety of haem analogues can be taken up by bac-terial cells and incorporated into haem-dependent enzymes.
Inhibition of Protein Synthesis
Most of the antibacterial agents that inhibit protein synthesis interact with the bacterial ribosome. The difference between the composition of bacterial and mammalian ribosomes gives these compounds their selectivity.
Aminoglycosides Aminoglycosides (gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, streptomycin, neomycin, and amikacin) are a group of structurally related compounds containing three linked hexose sugars. They exert a bactericidal effect by binding irreversibly to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome and blocking initiation of protein synthesis.
To be effective, concentrations of an antibacterial agent must exceed the pathogen's MIC. Serum antibiotic concentrations usually exceed the MIC for susceptible bacteria, but since most infections are extravascular, the antibiotic must also distribute to the site of the infection. Concentrations of most antibacterial agents in interstitial fluid are similar to free-drug concentrations in serum.
Antimicrobial drugs are a common cause of drug-drug interactions. Table 127-8 lists the most common and best-documented interactions of antibacterial agents with other drugs and characterizes the clinical relevance of these interactions. Coadministration of drugs paired in the tables does not necessarily result in clinically important adverse consequences.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Textbook of organic medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry" presents the following contents: Drug design strategies, metabolic changes of drugs and related organic compounds, biotechnology and drug discovery, immunobiologicals, anti infective agents, antibacterial antibiotics, antiviral agents,...
Aneja et al. Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2011, 1:15 http://www.orgmedchemlett.com/content/1/1/15
Synthesis of new pyrazolyl-2, 4-thiazolidinediones as antibacterial and antifungal agents
Deepak K Aneja1*, Poonam Lohan1, Sanjiv Arora1, Chetan Sharma2, Kamal R Aneja2 and Om Prakash3†
Background: Thiazolidine-2, 4-diones (TZDs) have become a pharmacologically important class of heterocyclic compounds since their introduction in the form of glitazones into the clinical use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Sulfonamides Antibacterial sulfonamides have a rather high risk of causing cutaneous eruptions and are among the drugs most frequently implicated in SJS and TEN. The combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim frequently induces adverse cutaneous reactions in patients with AIDS (Chap. 182). Desensitization is often successful in AIDS patients with morbilliform eruptions but is not recommended in AIDS patients who manifested erythroderma or a bullous reaction in response to their earlier sulfonamide exposure.
Cationic antimicrobial peptides are naturally occurring antibiotics that are
actively being explored as a new class of anti-infective agents. We recently
identified three cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides from chicken, which
have potent and broad-spectrum antibacterial activitiesin vitro (Xiao Y,
Cai Y, Bommineni YR, Fernando SC, Prakash O, Gilliland SE & Zhang
G (2006)J Biol Chem281, 2858–2867).