can be classified according to their respective primary mode of action (color tone in 2 and 3). When bacterial growth remains unaffected by an antibacterial drug, bacterial resistance is present. This may occur because of certain metabolic characteristics that confer a natural insensitivity to the drug on a particular strain of bacteria (natural resistance). Depending on whether a drug affects only a few or numerous types of bacteria, the terms narrow-spectrum (e.g., penicillin G) or broad-spectrum (e.g., tetracyclines) antibiotic are applied.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về bệnh thú y được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành thú y đề tài: Antibacterial Drugs Prescribed for Dogs and Cats in Sweden and Norway 1990-1998...
(BQ) Part 2 book "Colour atlas of pharmacology" presentation of content: Hypnotics, psychopharmacologicals, local anesthetics, antibacterial drugs, antiviral drugs, therapy of selected diseases,... and other contents.
Lesser categories of (3-lactams include — carbapenems (e.g. meropenem) — monobactams (e.g. aztreonam) and — p-lactamase inhibitors (e.g. clavulanic acid). Other inhibitors of cell wall synthesis include vancomycin and teicoplanin. INHIBITION OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Aminoglycosid.es. The names of those that are derived from streptomyces end in 'mycin', e.g. tobramycin. Others include gentamicin (from Micromonospora purpurea which is not a fungus, hence the spelling as 'micin') and semisynthetic drugs, e.g. amikacin.
β-Lactum antibiotics constitute an important class of antibacterial agents being used extensively for both humans and food-producing animals to treat or prevent infections. The drugs occasionally cause human deaths due to anaphylactic shock during medical treatments, especially when they are parenterally administered without their prior intracutaneous tests. These cases are usually handled as medical accidents (malpractice), and subjected to autopsies and analysis of the drugs used. These antibiotics are composed of cephems ( Table 10.1) and penicillins ( Table 10.
Sulfonamides Antibacterial sulfonamides have a rather high risk of causing cutaneous eruptions and are among the drugs most frequently implicated in SJS and TEN. The combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim frequently induces adverse cutaneous reactions in patients with AIDS (Chap. 182). Desensitization is often successful in AIDS patients with morbilliform eruptions but is not recommended in AIDS patients who manifested erythroderma or a bullous reaction in response to their earlier sulfonamide exposure.
The field of antiviral therapy—both the number of antiviral drugs and our understanding of their optimal use—continues to lag behind the field of antibacterial drug treatment, in which 70 years of experience have now been accumulated, but significant progress has been made in recent years on new drugs for several viral infections. The development of antiviral drugs poses several challenges. Viruses replicate intracellularly and often employ host cell enzymes, macromolecules, and organelles for synthesis of viral particles.
Part 2 book "Antibacterial chemotherapy theory, problems, and practice" presentation of content: Sensitivity and identification tests, genetics of antibiotic resistance, multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria and healthcare-acquired infections, anti-mycobacterium therapy, clinical use of antibiotics to prevent or control resistance.
Bacteria are non-chlorophyllated unicellular organisms that reproduce by fission and do not
present nuclear envelope. Gram´s stain is a staining technique used to classify bacteria based
on the different characteristic of their cell walls. Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria
are determined by the amount and location of peptidoglycan in the cell wall, exhibiting
different chemical compositions and structures, cell-wall permeabilities, physiologies,
metabolisms, and pathogenicities.
Surveys new techniques and chemicals for bleaching teeth that are now being tested by dentists and people at home. Among the topics are diagnosis and treatment planning, materials and their evaluation, clinical and laboratory techniques, and marketing.
Antibiotic agents have been in widespread and largely effective therapeutic use since their
discovery in the 20th century. However, the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens now presents
an increasing global challenge to both human and veterinary medicine. It is now widely acknowledged
that there is a need to develop novel antimicrobial agents to minimize the threat of further antimicrobial
Loperamide should not be used by patients with fever or dysentery; its use
may prolong diarrhea in patients with infection due to Shigella or other invasive organisms.
The recommended antibacterial drugs are as follows: Travel to high-risk
country other than Thailand: Adults: (1) A fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin, 750 mg as a single dose or 500 mg bid for 3 days; levofloxacin, 500 mg as a single dose or 500 mg qd for 3 days; or norfloxacin, 800 mg as a single dose or 400 mg bid for 3 days. (2) Azithromycin, 1000 mg as a single dose or 500 mg qd...
For the last 60 or so years the chemotherapy of bacterial infections has been dominated
by natural products and their semi-synthetic variants. Although the term antibiotic
was initially used exclusively to describe those anti-bacterials of natural or
semi-synthetic origin, it has become broadened in common usage to include antibacterial
agents of purely synthetic origin as well. The emphasis of this chapter will be
on the discovery of novel prototype structures that represent the different classes of
Hexameric DnaB helicase unwinds the DNA double helix during replica-tion of genetic material in bacteria. DnaB is an essential bacterial protein;
therefore, it is an important potential target for antibacterial drug disco-very. We report a crystal structure of the N-terminal region of DnaB from
the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MtDnaBn), determined at 2.0 A˚
Cell wall biosynthesis is a key target for antibacterial drugs. The major
constituent of the bacterial wall, peptidoglycan, is a netlike polymer
responsible for the size and shape of the cell and for resisting osmotic pres-sure. It consists of glycan chains of repeating disaccharide units cross-linked through short peptide chains.
The crystal structure of uridine monophosphate kinase (UMP kinase,
UMPK) from the opportunistic pathogenUreaplasma parvumwas deter-mined and showed similar three-dimensional fold as other bacterial and
archaeal UMPKs that all belong to the amino acid kinase family.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Textbook of organic medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry" presents the following contents: Drug design strategies, metabolic changes of drugs and related organic compounds, biotechnology and drug discovery, immunobiologicals, anti infective agents, antibacterial antibiotics, antiviral agents,...