Antibody engineering

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  • Twenty-five years ago, Georges Köhler and César Milstein invented a means of cloning individual antibodies, thus opening up the way for tremendous advances in the fields of cell biology and clinical diagnostics (1). However, in spite of their early promise, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were largely unsuccessful as therapeutic reagents resulting from insufficient activation of human effector functions and immune reactions against proteins of murine origin.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Antibody engineering to develop new antirheumatic therapies...

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  • Hybridomas are cells that have been engineered to produce a desired antibody in large amounts. To produce monoclonal antibodies, Bcells are removed from the spleen of an animal that has been challenged with the relevant antigen. These B-cells are then fused with myeloma tumor cells that can grow indefinitely in culture (myeloma is a B-cell cancer). This fusion is performed by making the cell membranes more permeable. The fused hybrid cells (called hybridomas), being cancer cells, will multiply rapidly and indefinitely and will produce large amounts of the desired antibodies.

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  • The title of this textbook, Biosensors: From Electric Circuits to Immunosensors, implies that we are going to learn both electric circuitry (in relation to conventional sensors such as temperature sensors) and biosensors (such as antibody-based immunosensors). The idea of putting these two topics together into a single book came from my decision to add biosensor topics to the “Sensors and Controls” class taught at the University of Arizona. At that time, I realized there was no available textbook that equally addressed these two topics.

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  • Antibodies are the paradigm for binding proteins, with their hypervariable loop region supported by a structurally rigid framework, thus providing the vast repertoire of antigen-binding sites in the immune system. Lipoca-lins are another family of proteins that exhibit a binding site with high structural plasticity, which is composed of four peptide loops mounted on a stable b-barrel scaffold.

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  • Economic crises are historically times of industrial renewal. Less efficient firms fail while more dynamic ones emerge and expand. Creative destruction is an essential engine of long term efficiency in market economies, and it intensifies in downturns. Available data for many OECD countries point to a sharp increase in bankruptcies and business failures in recent months. New business models and new technologies, particularly those allowing a reduction in cost, often arise in downturns, as was the case with low-cost airlines which grew out of the recession of the early 1990s.

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  • Important factors when choosing the best breed of chickens for your situation are: price, market situation, experience, farm management, local preference and availability. The price will determine your choice. Modern hybrids are very expen- sive. They also need very good care and high quality, balanced feed to be productive. Local breeds are cheaper and better adapted to local conditions. With adequate care, they are reasonably productive. How- ever, if you want to raise chickens on a larger scale and decide to buy balanced feed, it is better to choose the more expensive hybrids. ...

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  • Affinity reagents capable of selective recognition of the different human immunoglobulin isotypes are important detection and purification tools in biotechnology. Here we describe the development and characterization of affinity proteins (affibodies) showing selective binding to human IgA. From protein libraries constructed by combinatorial mutagenesis of a 58-amino-acid, three-helix bundle domain derived from the IgG-binding staphylococcal protein A, variants showing IgA binding were selected by using phage display technology and IgA monoclonal antibodies (myeloma) as target molecules. ...

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  • Addresses: *The Van Andel Research Institute, 333 Bostwick, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA. †The University of Amsterdam, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ‡The University of Michigan Medical School, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. §Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, 310 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. Correspondence: Brian B Haab. E-mail: Brian.Haab@vai.

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  • The Communication part is the interface for programs accessing the TOE. It is the interface between the TOE and clients performing requests. All responses to user application requests return to the client through this part of the TOE. The Relational Engine is the core of the database engine and is responsible for all security relevant decisions.

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  • In recognition of the enormous advances in biotechnology in recent years, we are pleased to present this Second Edition of “Biotechnology” relatively soon after the introduction of the First Edition of this multi-volume comprehensive treatise. Since this series was extremely well accepted by the scientific community, we have maintained the overall goal of creating a number of volumes, each devoted to a certain topic, which provide scientists in academia, industry, and public institutions with a well-balanced and comprehensive overview of this growing field.

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  • Therapeutic immunosuppression has very broad applications in clinical medicine, ranging from prevention and treatment of organ and bone marrow transplant rejection, management of various autoimmune disorders (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis), skin diseases, allergies and asthma. Whereas traditionally only a small repertoire of immunosuppressive agents was available for clinical use, recent discoveries have significantly increased the number of approved agents, resulting in numerous trials to further evaluate their potential.

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  • FDA cho phép dùng thuốc mới Remicade (infliximab) cho việc điều trị bệnh viêm ruột Crohn’s disease. Remicade là một loại thuốc do điều chế kháng thể đơn dòng (monoclonal antibody). Thuốc giảm hiện tượng viêm bằng cách ngăn chặn yếu tố tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). FDA Approves Remicade for Children with Crohn’s Disease The Food and Drug Administration today approved Remicade (infliximab) to treat children with active Crohn's disease, a chronic, inflammatory condition of the bowel that can be severely debilitating.

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  • Two novel human antitumor immunoconjugates, engineered by fusion of a single-chain antibody fragment against human ErbB2 receptor, termed Erbicin, with either a human RNase or the Fc region of a human IgG1 , are selectively cytotoxic for ErbB2-positive cancer cellsin vitro andin vivo.

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  • In recent years, classical antibody-based affinity reagents have been challenged by novel types of binding proteins developed by combinatorial protein engineering principles. One of these classes of binding proteins of non-Ig origin are the so-called affibody binding proteins, functionally selected from libraries of a small (6 kDa), non-cysteine three-helix bundle domain used as a scaffold.

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  • Staphylokinase (SAK) is a 15.5-kDa protein fromStaphy-lococcus aureusthat activates plasminogenby forminga1 : 1 complex with plasmin. Recombinant SAK has been shown in clinical trials to induce ®brin-speci®c clot lysis in patients withacutemyocardial infarction.However, SAKelicits high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Biochemical and protein engineering studies have demonstrated the feasibility of generatingSAKvariantswith reducedantigenicity yet intact thrombolytic potency.

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