Antibody molecules

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  • Twenty-five years ago, Georges Köhler and César Milstein invented a means of cloning individual antibodies, thus opening up the way for tremendous advances in the fields of cell biology and clinical diagnostics (1). However, in spite of their early promise, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were largely unsuccessful as therapeutic reagents resulting from insufficient activation of human effector functions and immune reactions against proteins of murine origin.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Treatment of Allergic Diseases: Application to Clinical Practice of a New Concept of Mutual Substitutions of Antibody Molecules on the Surface of Mast Cells...

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  • Representative patterns of serum electrophoresis. The upper panel illustrates the normal pattern of serum protein on electrophoresis. Since there are many different immunoglobulins in the serum, their differing mobilities in an electric field produce a broad peak. In conditions associated with increases in polyclonal immunoglobulin, the broad peak is more prominent (middle panel). In monoclonal gammopathies, the predominance of a product of a single cell produces a "church spire" sharp peak, usually in the γ globulin region (bottom panel).

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Generation and characterization of high affinity human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize staphylococcal enterotoxin B...proinflammatory cytokines by bridging the MHC II molecules

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  • Antibodies and their fragments are attractive binding proteins because their high binding strength is generated by several hypervariable loop regions, and because high-quality libraries can be prepared from the vast gene clus-ters expressed by mammalian lymphocytes. Recent explorations of new genome sequences and protein structures have revealed various small, nonantibody scaffold proteins.

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  • Targeting lentiviral vector to specific cell types through surface displayed single chain antibody and fusogenic molecule

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế về bệnh thú y đề tài: Use of flow cytometry to develop and characterize a set of monoclonal antibodies specific for rabbit leukocyte differentiation molecules

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  • Neuropilin (NRP) and plexin (Plex) that are now known to be semaphorin receptors were initially identified as antigens for monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that bound to particular neuropiles and plexiform layers of the Xenopus tadpole optic tectum, several years before the discovery of semaphorin. The extracellular segment of the NRP protein is a mosaic of 3 functionally different protein motifs that are thought to be involved in molecular and/or cellular interactions, suggesting that NRP serves in a various cell-cell interaction by binding a variety of molecules.

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  • It has long been an important task to prepare a catalytic antibody capable of digesting a targeting crucial protein that controls specific life functions. Tumor necrosis factor-a(TNF-a) is a cytokine and an important molecule concerned with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and Crohn’s disease.

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  • Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs), which occur naturally in camelids, are endowed with many characteristics that make them attractive candidates as building blocks to create new antibody-related therapeutic molecules. In this study, we isolated from an immunized llama several high-affinity sdAbs directed against human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a heavily glycosylated tumor-associated molecule expressed in a variety of cancers.

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  • To generate human antibodies against CXCR4, a seven-transmembrane chemokine receptor and a principal coreceptor forHIV-1, several roundsofPathfinder andStep-back selection from a large phage display antibody library were performed on Jurkat cells. A mAb against CXCR4 or biotinyated phage antibodies were used as guide molecules. Over 100 pan-Jurkat-cell-positive antibodies were charac-terized, but none were CXCR4 specific.

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  • The complex C1 triggers the activation of the Complement classical pathway through the recognition and binding of antigen–antibody complex by its subunit C1q. The globular region of C1q is responsible for C1 binding to the immune complex. C1q can also bind nonimmune molecules such as DNAand sulfated polysaccharides, leading either to the activation or inhibition of Complement. The binding site of these nonimmune ligands is debated in the literature, and it has beenproposed to be located either in the globular region or in the collagen-like regionof C1q, or inboth....

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  • The biological changes underlying the transition process from gingival health to early inflammatory changes involve local increase in vascular permeability, edema and the recruitment and activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) (Delima and Van Dyke 2003). Acquired immune response becomes involved once antigen-presenting cells interact with immunocompetent cells, such as T and B lymphocytes, leading to the expansion of antibody-secreting plasma cells and the development of the chronic lesion (Gemmell and Seymour 2004).

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 116. Immunization Principles and Vaccine Use Principles of Immunization The immune system, composed of a variety of cell types and soluble factors, is geared toward the recognition of and response to "foreign" substances termed antigens. Vaccines convey antigens from living or killed microorganisms (or protein or carbohydrate molecules derived from these antigens) to elicit immune responses that are generally protective but can occasionally backfire and cause harm to the recipient.

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  • The plasma cell disorders are monoclonal neoplasms related to each other by virtue of their development from common progenitors in the B lymphocyte lineage. Multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, primary amyloidosis (Chap. 324), and the heavy chain diseases comprise this group and may be designated by a variety of synonyms such as monoclonal gammopathies, paraproteinemias, plasma cell dyscrasias, and dysproteinemias.

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  • The immune system, composed of a variety of cell types and soluble factors, is geared toward the recognition of and response to "foreign" substances termed antigens. Vaccines convey antigens from living or killed microorganisms (or protein or carbohydrate molecules derived from these antigens) to elicit immune responses that are generally protective but can occasionally backfire and cause harm to the recipient.

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  • Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA) Except for countries where malaria is endemic, AIHA is the most common form of acquired hemolytic anemia. In fact, not quite appropriately, the two phrases are sometimes used synonymously. Pathophysiology AIHA is caused by an autoantibody directed against a red cell antigen, i.e., a molecule present on the surface of red cells. The autoantibody binds to the red cells. Once a red cell is coated by antibody, it will be destroyed by one or more mechanisms.

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  • The major pathogenic mechanism of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is an in situ immune complex formation due to deposition of streptococcal nephritogenic antigens, such as nephritis-associated plasmin receptor (NAPlr) and Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B). Both are capable of activating the alternate pathway of the complement cascade and enhance the expression of adhesion molecules. SPE B also stimulates the production of chemotactic cytokines. NAPlr was isolated from group A streptococcus and was shown to bind plasmin(ogen).

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  • Most traditional pharmaceutical drugs are relatively small molecules that bind to particular molecular targets and either activate or deactivate biological processes. Small molecules are typically manufactured through traditional organic synthesis, and many can be taken orally.[citation needed] In contrast, Biopharmaceuticals are large biological molecules such as proteins that are developed to address targets that cannot easily be addressed by small molecules.

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  • Conformational changes in the calpain molecule following interaction with natural ligands can be monitored by the binding of a specific monoclonal antibody directed against the catalytic domain of the protease. None of these conformational states showed catalytic activity and probably repre-sent intermediate forms preceding the active enzyme state.

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