The discovery that signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor
(EGFR) plays a key role in tumorigenesis prompted efforts to target this
receptor in anticancer therapy. Two different types of EGFR-targeted ther-apeutic agents were subsequently developed: mAbs, such as cetuximab and
panitumumab, which target the extracellular domain of the receptor,
It has been said that the control of disease has three goals, which, in
increasing order of attraction are palliation, cure, and prevention. For most types
of disseminated cancer, medical science has achieved only the first of these
objectives, while for some malignancies the side effects of the therapeutic agents
employed rival the disease itself in precluding a desirable quality of life.
Abstract Resistance to conventional anticancer therapies in patients with advanced solid tumors has prompted the need of alternative cancer therapies. Moreover, the success of novel cancer therapies depends on their selectivity for cancer cells with limited toxicity to normal tissues. Several decades after Coley's work a variety of natural and genetically modified non-pathogenic bacterial species are being explored as potential antitumor agents, either to provide direct tumoricidal effects or to deliver tumoricidal molecules.
It is my privilege to introduce this Handbook on Advanced Cancer Care,
which belongs to a series of publications initiated by the European Society
for Medical Oncology (ESMO). There is a great need, especially for medical
oncologists, to have a comprehensive overview of the essential elements
needed for the care of patients with advanced cancer. This handbook fulfills
The Handbook on Advanced Cancer Care provides useful definitions and
surveys of treatment principles.
The collected Chapters in this volume describe the current status of poly(ethylene
glycol) (PEG) modification of proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides and
small molecule drugs, the recent advances in conjugation chemistry, and new
clinical products. The book provides an excellent update in this rapidly evolving
field, and the comprehensive collection of Chapters complements well past
reviews/volumes that have documented the evolution of PEGylation. For
example, a reader new to this field is encouraged to gain the historical perspective
by reading the following reviews [1–8].
Solid tumours are complex structures in which the interdependent relation-ship between tumour and endothelial cells modulates tumour development
and metastasis dissemination. The tumour microenvironment plays an
important role in this cell interplay, and changes in its features have a
major impact on tumour growth as well as on anticancer therapy respon-siveness.
Both microtubule destabilizer and stabilizer agents are important molecules
in anticancer therapy. In particular, paclitaxel has been demonstrated to be
effective for the treatment of ovarian, breast, and nonsmall cell lung carci-nomas. It has been shown that emergence of resistance against this agent
correlates with an increase in the relative abundance of tubulin isoform
bIII and that the more recently discovered IDN5390 can be effectively used
once resistance has emerged.
The spontaneous acquisition of resistance to a variety of
unrelated cytotoxic compounds has important implications
in medical treatment of infectious diseases and anticancer
therapy. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiaethis pheno-menon is caused by overexpression of membrane efflux
pumps and is called pleiotropic drug resistance. We have
found that allelic forms of the genes for the transcription
activators Pdr1p and Pdr3p, designated PDR1-12and
PDR3-33,respectively, mediate resistance to diazaborine....
With parallel breakthroughs occurring in molecular biology and nanoscience/technology, the newly
recognized research thrust on “nanomedicine” is expected to have a revolutionary impact on the
future of healthcare. To advance nanotechnology research for cancer prevention, diagnosis, and
treatment, the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) established the Alliance for
Nanotechnology in Cancer in September 2004 and has pledged $144.3 million in the next five years
(for details, visit http://nano.cancer.gov).
Pyrimidine biosynthesis enzymes function in many cellular processes and
are closely associated with pyrimidine antagonists used in cancer chemo-therapy. These enzymes are well characterized from bacteria to mammals,
but not in a simple metazoan. To study the pyrimidine biosynthesis path-way inCaenorhabditis elegans, we screened for mutants exhibiting resis-tance to the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).
Hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC) is a synthetic lipid rep-resentative of a new group of antiproliferative agents,
alkylphosphocholines (APC), which are promising candi-dates in anticancer therapy. Thus we have studied the action
of HePC on the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2,
which is frequently used as a model for studies into hepatic
The ultimate goal of cancer research is the development of effective anticancer
therapy. During the last several decades, the discovery of oncogenes, tumor
suppressors, growth factors, signal transduction pathways has dramatically
escalated our understanding of cancer cell biology and mechanisms of cell
transformation.1-3 Hundreds of cellular proteins and pathways have been logically
considered as molecular targets in a mechanism-based approaches of anticancer drug
Yet, the progress in cancer treatment has not paralleled these dramatic achievements
in basic research.
Imidazolium trans-imidazoledimethyl sulfoxide-tetrachlo-roruthenate (NAMI-A) is a novel ruthenium-containing
experimental antimetastatic agent. Compelling evidence
ascribes apivotal role toendothelial cells in theorchestration
of tumor angiogenesis and metastatic growth, suggesting
antiangiogenic therapy as an attractive approach for