Anticancer treatment

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  • It is my privilege to introduce this Handbook on Advanced Cancer Care, which belongs to a series of publications initiated by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO). There is a great need, especially for medical oncologists, to have a comprehensive overview of the essential elements needed for the care of patients with advanced cancer. This handbook fulfills these requirements. The Handbook on Advanced Cancer Care provides useful definitions and surveys of treatment principles.

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  • With parallel breakthroughs occurring in molecular biology and nanoscience/technology, the newly recognized research thrust on “nanomedicine” is expected to have a revolutionary impact on the future of healthcare. To advance nanotechnology research for cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) established the Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer in September 2004 and has pledged $144.3 million in the next five years (for details, visit

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  • Saporin is a type I ribosome-inactivating protein that is often appended with a cell-binding domain to specifically target and kill cancer cells. Uroki-nase plasminogen activator (uPA)-saporin, for example, is an anticancer toxin that consists of a chemical conjugate between the human uPA and native saporin.

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  • Imidazolium trans-imidazoledimethyl sulfoxide-tetrachlo-roruthenate (NAMI-A) is a novel ruthenium-containing experimental antimetastatic agent. Compelling evidence ascribes apivotal role toendothelial cells in theorchestration of tumor angiogenesis and metastatic growth, suggesting antiangiogenic therapy as an attractive approach for anticancer treatment.

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  • Previous studies have shown an anticancer effect of vitamin D, but the mechanisms underlying this action have not been fully explored. Here we show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3, the active form of vitamin D) significantly promoted apoptosis in the undifferentiated gastric cancer cell line HGC-27, and this was accompanied by a concurrent increase in phos-phatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression on VD3 treatment.

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  • Both microtubule destabilizer and stabilizer agents are important molecules in anticancer therapy. In particular, paclitaxel has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of ovarian, breast, and nonsmall cell lung carci-nomas. It has been shown that emergence of resistance against this agent correlates with an increase in the relative abundance of tubulin isoform bIII and that the more recently discovered IDN5390 can be effectively used once resistance has emerged.

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  • The spontaneous acquisition of resistance to a variety of unrelated cytotoxic compounds has important implications in medical treatment of infectious diseases and anticancer therapy. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiaethis pheno-menon is caused by overexpression of membrane efflux pumps and is called pleiotropic drug resistance. We have found that allelic forms of the genes for the transcription activators Pdr1p and Pdr3p, designated PDR1-12and PDR3-33,respectively, mediate resistance to diazaborine....

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  • The mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a member of a high-mobility group (HMG) family represented mostly by nuclear proteins. Although nuclear localization of TFAM has been demonstrated in some tumors and after treatment of tumor cells with anticancer drugs, the signifi-cance of these observations has not been fully elucidated.

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  • The ultimate goal of cancer research is the development of effective anticancer therapy. During the last several decades, the discovery of oncogenes, tumor suppressors, growth factors, signal transduction pathways has dramatically escalated our understanding of cancer cell biology and mechanisms of cell transformation.1-3 Hundreds of cellular proteins and pathways have been logically considered as molecular targets in a mechanism-based approaches of anticancer drug development.4-6 Yet, the progress in cancer treatment has not paralleled these dramatic achievements in basic research.

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