At this writing the Cassini spacecraft has fired its engine and successfully inserted
itself and its precious cargo of scientific instruments into orbit, the first step of
its exploration of the Saturnian system. The suspense is not over, however. While
exciting images of the rings have been captured, an exotic composition of Phoebe
sensed by the mapping spectrometer and unexpected panoply of magnetic waves
and plasma dynamics encountered on the incoming trajectory and initial orbit, the
Huygens probe is still on board and the first close flyby of Titan has not taken place....
For some overseas students, essays have to be written in the unfamiliar rhetorical styles of the target
culture (Crowe & Peterson, 1995). An added complexity is that different cultural conventions are
involved in academic argument. These conventions are important from the point of view of the teacher in
that overseas students may have a logical orientation, but it may be perceived to be illogical to a reader
anticipating a different culturally-constrained demonstration of logic.
Nanotechnology entered the more public arena in 2001 when President Clinton
brought worldwide attention to nanotechnology through his budget approval for the
US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). The initial budget allocated for
nanotechnology in 2001 was $422 million, which demonstrated the anticipated
relevance of nanotechnology to the USA economic growth as well as nanotechno-
logy’s strategic importance to national security. Three years later, in December
The synthesis of the modified tetrapyrrole known asd1haem requires sev-eral dedicated proteins which are coded for by a set of genes that are often
found adjacent to the structural gene, nirS, for cytochrome cd1 nitrite
reductase. NirE, the product of the first gene in the nirbiogenesis operon,
was anticipated to catalyse the conversion of uroporphyrinogen III into
This paper presents an approach for achieving conciseness in generating explanations, which is clone by exploiting formal reconstructions of aspects of the Gricean principle of relevance to simulate conversational implicature. By applying contextually motivated inference rules in an anticipation feed-back loop, a set of propositions explicitly representing an explanation's content is reduced to a subset which, in the actual context, can still be considered to convey the message adequately.
Understanding the biological basis of aging has fascinated people throughout
recorded history, and is one of the great remaining scientific questions. The question
has never been more important than now, as we anticipate the impact that a
rapidly growing older population will have on the social, political, and medical
landscape over the next 50 years. There is increasing evidence that aging involves
damage to the genome, and it is certainly the case that such damage explains much
of the coupling of most cancers to aging.
Traditionally, health agencies determine potential adverse human health effects based on results of
published animal studies. It is difficult for many agencies to say for certain if a chemical is dangerous to
humans because there may be no published studies of human exposures.
Public health agencies examine all available data when evaluating chemicals.
The objective of medicine is to address people’s unavoidable
needs for emotional and physical healing. The discipline has
evolved over millennia by drawing on the religious beliefs and
social structures of numerous indigenous peoples, by exploit-
ing natural products in their environments, and more recently
by developing and validating therapeutic and preventive
approaches using the scientific method.