Antigen and antibody

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  • Blood transfusion is a field where there has been, and continue to be, significant advances in science, technology and most particularly governance. The aim of this book is to provide students of allied medical sciences, medicine and transfusion practitioners with a comprehensive overview of both the scientific and managerial aspects of blood transfusion. The book is intended to equip biomedical, clinical and allied medical professionals with practical tools to allow for an informed practice in the field of blood transfusion management....

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 107. Transfusion Biology and Therapy Blood Group Antigens and Antibodies The study of red blood cell (RBC) antigens and antibodies forms the foundation of transfusion medicine. Serologic studies initially characterized these antigens, but now the molecular composition and structure of many are known. Antigens, either carbohydrate or protein, are assigned to a blood group system based on the structure and similarity of the determinant epitopes.

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  • As with the first edition, the primary purpose of this book is to describe human blood group antigens and their inheritance, the antibodies that define them, the structure and functions of the red cell membrane macromolecules that carry them, and the genes that encode them or control their biosynthesis. In addition, this book provides information on the clinical relevance of blood groups and on the importance of blood group antibodies in transfusion medicine in particular.

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  • The study of red blood cell (RBC) antigens and antibodies forms the foundation of transfusion medicine. Serologic studies initially characterized these antigens, but now the molecular composition and structure of many are known. Antigens, either carbohydrate or protein, are assigned to a blood group system based on the structure and similarity of the determinant epitopes. Other cellular blood elements and plasma proteins are also antigenic and can result in alloimmunization, the production of antibodies directed against the blood group antigens of another individual.

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  • Immune-Mediated Reactions Acute Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions Immune-mediated hemolysis occurs when the recipient has preformed antibodies that lyse donor erythrocytes. The ABO isoagglutinins are responsible for the majority of these reactions, although alloantibodies directed against other RBC antigens, i.e., Rh, Kell, and Duffy, may result in hemolysis. Acute hemolytic reactions may present with hypotension, tachypnea, tachycardia, fever, chills, hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria, chest and/or flank pain, and discomfort at the infusion site.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 116. Immunization Principles and Vaccine Use Principles of Immunization The immune system, composed of a variety of cell types and soluble factors, is geared toward the recognition of and response to "foreign" substances termed antigens. Vaccines convey antigens from living or killed microorganisms (or protein or carbohydrate molecules derived from these antigens) to elicit immune responses that are generally protective but can occasionally backfire and cause harm to the recipient.

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  • The major pathogenic mechanism of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is an in situ immune complex formation due to deposition of streptococcal nephritogenic antigens, such as nephritis-associated plasmin receptor (NAPlr) and Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B). Both are capable of activating the alternate pathway of the complement cascade and enhance the expression of adhesion molecules. SPE B also stimulates the production of chemotactic cytokines. NAPlr was isolated from group A streptococcus and was shown to bind plasmin(ogen).

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  • Twenty-five years ago, Georges Köhler and César Milstein invented a means of cloning individual antibodies, thus opening up the way for tremendous advances in the fields of cell biology and clinical diagnostics (1). However, in spite of their early promise, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were largely unsuccessful as therapeutic reagents resulting from insufficient activation of human effector functions and immune reactions against proteins of murine origin.

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  • Hybridomas are cells that have been engineered to produce a desired antibody in large amounts. To produce monoclonal antibodies, Bcells are removed from the spleen of an animal that has been challenged with the relevant antigen. These B-cells are then fused with myeloma tumor cells that can grow indefinitely in culture (myeloma is a B-cell cancer). This fusion is performed by making the cell membranes more permeable. The fused hybrid cells (called hybridomas), being cancer cells, will multiply rapidly and indefinitely and will produce large amounts of the desired antibodies.

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  • Immunophenotype and Relevance to the WHO Classification The immunophenotype of human leukemia cells can be studied by multiparameter flow cytometry after the cells are labeled with monoclonal antibodies to cell-surface antigens. This can be important for separating AML from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and identifying some types of AML. For example, AML that is minimally differentiated (immature morphology and no lineage-specific cytochemical reactions) is diagnosed by flow-cytometric demonstration of the myeloid-specific antigens cluster designation (CD) 13 or 33.

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  • The MNSsU system is regulated by genes on chromosome 4. M and N are determinants on glycophorin A, an RBC membrane protein, and S and s are determinants on glycophorin B. Anti-S and anti-s IgG antibodies may develop after pregnancy or transfusion and lead to hemolysis. Anti-U antibodies are rare but problematic; virtually every donor is incompatible because nearly all persons express U. The Kell protein is very large (720 amino acids), and its secondary structure contains many different antigenic epitopes. The immunogenicity of Kell is third behind the ABO and Rh systems.

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  • Table 109-1 Drugs Definitively Reported to Cause Isolated Thrombocytopeniaa Abciximab Digoxin Acetaminophen Eptifibatide Acyclovir Hydrochlorothiazide Aminosalicylic acid Ibuprofen Amiodarone Levamisole Amphotericin B Octreotide Ampillicin Phenytoin Carbamazepine Quinine Chlorpropamide Rifampin Danazol Tamoxifen Diatrizoate meglumine (Hypaque Meglumine) Tirofiban Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole Diclofenac Vancomycin a Drugs that preceded thrombocytopenia and full recovery occurred after drug discontinuation, but recurred with re-introduction of the drug, and ot...

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  • Neuropilin (NRP) and plexin (Plex) that are now known to be semaphorin receptors were initially identified as antigens for monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that bound to particular neuropiles and plexiform layers of the Xenopus tadpole optic tectum, several years before the discovery of semaphorin. The extracellular segment of the NRP protein is a mosaic of 3 functionally different protein motifs that are thought to be involved in molecular and/or cellular interactions, suggesting that NRP serves in a various cell-cell interaction by binding a variety of molecules.

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  • Anti-Ras intracellular antibodies inhibit cell proliferation in vivo by sequestering the antigen and diverting it from its physiological location [Lener,M.,Horn, I.R.,Cardinale,A., Messina, S., Nielsen, U.B., Rybak, S.M., Hoogenboom, H.R., Cattaneo, A., Biocca, S. (2000)Eur. J. Biochem.267, 1196–1205]. Here we demonstrate that strongly aggregating single-chain antibody fragments (scFv), binding to Ras, induce apoptosis, and this effect is strictly related to the antibody-mediated aggregation of p21Ras.

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  • Chapter 43 - The immune system. You should now be able to: Distinguish between innate and acquired immunity; name and describe four types of phagocytic cells; describe the inflammation response; distinguish between the following pairs of terms: antigens and antibodies; antigen and epitope; B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes; antibodies and B cell receptors; primary and secondary immune responses; humoral and cell-mediated response; active and passive immunity;...

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  • Antigen (chất sinh bệnh – pathogen) có nguồn gốc từ nấm mốc, vi khuẩn, virus hay các loại protein ngoại lai có khả năng sinh bệnh (gây bệnh) cho vật chủ.

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  • The biological changes underlying the transition process from gingival health to early inflammatory changes involve local increase in vascular permeability, edema and the recruitment and activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) (Delima and Van Dyke 2003). Acquired immune response becomes involved once antigen-presenting cells interact with immunocompetent cells, such as T and B lymphocytes, leading to the expansion of antibody-secreting plasma cells and the development of the chronic lesion (Gemmell and Seymour 2004).

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  • The next important milestone emerged in 1990 when three independent working groups described the role of2-glycoprotein I as a target antigen in antiphospholipid antibodies’ action (Galli M, et al; 1990, Matsura E, et al; 1990, McNeil HP, et al; 1990). This discovery substantially changed point of view of many of the researchers and also clinical practisers in the topic and it led to research of 2-glycoprotein I structure, function and confirmation of significance of its antibodies presence during the next years....

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Use of monoclonal antibodies against Hendra and Nipah viruses in an antigen capture ELISA

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