Antimicrobial drugs

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Minireview cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: New approaches to combating antimicrobial drug resistance...

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  • More than 2,500 serotypes of Salmonella exist. However, only some of these serotypes have been frequently associated with food-borne illnesses. This book contains nineteen chapters which cover a range of different topics, such as the role of foods in Salmonella infections, food-borne outbreaks caused by Salmonella, biofilm formation, antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella isolates, methods for controlling Salmonella in food, and Salmonella isolation and identification methods.

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  • Human serum albumin (HSA) has an extraordinary ligand-binding capac-ity, and transports Fe(III)heme and medium- and long-chain fatty acids. In human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients the administered drugs bind to HSA and act as allosteric effectors. Here, the binding of Fe(III)-heme to HSA in the presence of three representative anti-HIV drugs and myristate is investigated.

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  • Despite intensive research extending back to the 1930s, when the first syn-thetic antimalarial drugs made their appearance, the repertoire of clinically licensed formulations remains very limited. Moreover, widespread and increasing resistance to these drugs contributes enormously to the difficul-ties in controlling malaria, posing considerable intellectual, technical and humanitarian challenges.

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  • HIV-1 protease (PR) and two drug-resistant variants – PR with the V82A mutation (PRV82A) and PR with the I84V mutation (PRI84V) – were studied using reduced peptide analogs of five natural cleavage sites (CA-p2, p2-NC, p6 pol -PR, p1-p6 and NC-p1) to understand the structural and kine-tic changes. The common drug-resistant mutations V82A and I84V alter residues forming the substrate-binding site. Eight crystal structures were refined at resolutions of 1.10–1.60 A ˚ .

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  • Bacteria are non-chlorophyllated unicellular organisms that reproduce by fission and do not present nuclear envelope. Gram´s stain is a staining technique used to classify bacteria based on the different characteristic of their cell walls. Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria are determined by the amount and location of peptidoglycan in the cell wall, exhibiting different chemical compositions and structures, cell-wall permeabilities, physiologies, metabolisms, and pathogenicities.

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  • This book explores many of the aspects of the growing problem posed by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. What is unique about this book is that it is a blend of the purely scientific and the practical, an approach that is essential because antibiotic resistance is a social and economic problem as well as a scientific problem.

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  • Infection is a major category of human disease and skilled management of antimicrobial drugs is of the first importance.The term chemotherapy is used for the drug treatment of parasitic infections in which the parasites (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, worms) are destroyed or removed without injuring the hostThe use of the term to cover all drug or synthetic drug therapy needlessly removes a distinction which is convenient to the clinician and has the sanction of long usage.

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  • -Antibiotic ( Latin : destructive of life) -Antibacterial , Antimicrobial Drugs. * Những chất có khả năng phá hủy hay ức chế sự phát triển của

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  • The clinical microbiology laboratory is often a sentinel for the detection of drug resistant strains of microorganisms. Standardized protocols require continual scrutiny to detect emerging phenotypic resistance patterns. The timely notification of clinicians with susceptibility results can initiate the alteration of antimicrobial chemotherapy and improve patient care. It is vital that microbiology laboratories stay current with standard and emerging methods and have a solid understanding of their function in the war on infectious diseases. ...

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  • Handbook of Antimicrobial Therapy Selected Articles from Treatment Guidelines with updates from The Medical Letter ® Published by The Medical Letter, Inc. 145 Huguenot St. New Rochelle, New York 10801-7537 800-211-2769 914-235-0500 Fax 914-632-1733 www.medicalletter.org 19th Edition .Contents Summary ................................................................................................. Pathogens in Specific Organs and Tissues ........................................... Bacterial Infections ................................................................................

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  • Site of Infection The location of the infected site may play a major role in the choice and dose of antimicrobial drug. Patients with suspected meningitis should receive drugs that can cross the blood-CSF barrier; in addition, because of the relative paucity of phagocytes and opsonins at the site of infection, the agents should be bactericidal. Chloramphenicol, an older drug but occasionally useful in the treatment of meningitis, is bactericidal for common organisms causing meningitis (i.e.

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  • For the last 60 or so years the chemotherapy of bacterial infections has been dominated by natural products and their semi-synthetic variants. Although the term antibiotic was initially used exclusively to describe those anti-bacterials of natural or semi-synthetic origin, it has become broadened in common usage to include antibacterial agents of purely synthetic origin as well. The emphasis of this chapter will be on the discovery of novel prototype structures that represent the different classes of antibiotic e.g.

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  • In the search for new drug targets in the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica, metabolic control analysis was applied to determine, experimen-tally, flux control distribution of amebal glycolysis. The first (hexokinase, hexose-6-phosphate isomerase, pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructo-

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  • Polyamine oxidase (PAO) and spermine oxidase (SMO) are involved in the catabolism of polyamines – basic regulators of cell growth and prolifer-ation. The discovery of selective inhibitors of PAO and SMO represents an important tool in studying the involvement of these enzymes in polyamine homeostasis and a starting point for the development of novel antineoplas-tic drugs.

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  • Single-crystal X-ray structure determinations of the complex between the minor-groove binder distamycin and d(GGCCAATTGG) reveal two 1 : 1 binding modes which differ in the orientation of the drug molecule in the minor groove. The two crystals were grown from different crystallization conditions and found to diffract to 2.38 and ˚ 1.85 A, respectively. The structures were refined to completion using SHELXL-93, resulting in a residual R factor of ˚ 20.30% for the 2.38-A resolution structure (including 46 ˚ water molecules) and 19.74% for the 1.

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  • Streptococcus pneumoniaeis one of the major pathogens worldwide. The use of currently available antibiotics to treat pneumococcal diseases is ham-pered by increasing resistance levels; also, capsular polysaccharide-based vaccination is of limited efficacy. Therefore, it is desirable to find targets for the development of new antimicrobial drugs specifically designed to fight pneumococcal infections.

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  • Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important components of all cAMP signalling networks. In humans, 11 different PDE families have been identified to date, all of which belong to the class I PDEs. Pharmaco-logically, theyhavebecome of great interest as targets for the development of drugs for a large variety of clinical condi-tions. PDEs in parasitic protozoa have not yet been exten-sively investigated, despite their potential as antiparasitic drug targets.

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  • The spontaneous acquisition of resistance to a variety of unrelated cytotoxic compounds has important implications in medical treatment of infectious diseases and anticancer therapy. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiaethis pheno-menon is caused by overexpression of membrane efflux pumps and is called pleiotropic drug resistance. We have found that allelic forms of the genes for the transcription activators Pdr1p and Pdr3p, designated PDR1-12and PDR3-33,respectively, mediate resistance to diazaborine....

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  • Onconase, a member of the ribonuclease superfamily, is a potent cytotoxicagent that isundergoingphase II/IIIhuman clinical trials as an antitumor drug. Native onconase from Rana pipiensand its amphibian homologs have an N-ter-minal pyroglutamyl residue that is essential for obtaining fully active enzymes with their full potential as cytotoxins. When expressed cytosolically in bacteria, Onconase is isolated with an additional methionyl (Met1) residue and glutaminyl insteadof a pyroglutamyl residue at position 1 of the N-terminus and is consequently inactivated....

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