Cathodoluminescence (CL) is a non-destructive technique to characterize optical and
electronic properties of nanostructures in many kinds of materials. Major subject is to
investigate basic parameters in semiconductors, impurities in oxides and phase
determination of minerals. CL is similar to photoluminescence (PL) technique, but the
excitation by high energy electrons can produce all the transition to the higher energy
excitation states and induce light emission in the wide energy range concerned with
versatile types of electronic transitions in materials....
Building on MATLAB (the language of technical computing), Simulink provides a
platform for engineers to plan, model, design, simulate, test and implement complex
electromechanical, dynamic control, signal processing and communication systems.
Simulink-Matlab combination is very useful for developing algorithms, GUI assisted
creation of block diagrams and realisation of interactive simulation based designs. The
eleven chapters of the book demonstrate the power and capabilities of Simulink to
solve engineering problems with varied degree of complexity in the virtual
The 555 timer is one of the most useful electronic devices in the
market. The 555 timer was first introduced by Signetics but today it is manufactured
by nearly all semiconductor firms. The cost of this device is low
and it is widely available. The 555 timer has lots of uses such as: Mark Space
Adjustment, Pulse Width Modulation and Inductive Current Detection just
to name a few. The 555 has some unique advantages and capabilities, such as: low-cost, high
operating voltage (5-15V) range, it is high powered and at the same time able to
be triggered by small currents.
The modern interest for phenomena at the semiconductor–electrolyte interface dates back to experiments performed in the 1950s with germanium, and has extended to most semiconducting materials for reasons of fundamental knowledge or potential application, going from semiconductor processing technology to heterogeneous photocatalysis to sensors. The subject is highly interdisciplinary and involves ﬁelds like electrochemistry, solid-state physics, and surface science.
Nanoscience has emerged to become one of the most exciting areas of research
today and has attracted the imagination of a large body of students, scientists,
and engineers. The various kinds of nanomaterials that one normally deals
with are the zero-dimensional nanocrystals, one-dimensional nanowires and
nanotubes, and two-dimensional nanofilms and nanowalls. Of these, one of the
earliest research investigations pertains to nanocrystals. It is truly remarkable
that Michael Faraday made nanocrystals of gold and other metals in solution
way back in 1857.
This book provides an overview of the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystals.
Nanocrystals, owing to their unique behavior with reduction in size, have been a
significant part of the novel materials developed for applications such as biosensors,
optics, catalysts to semiconductor devices. Over the years, various synthesis methods
are discovered to develop nanostructures with tunable properties such as optical,
electronic magnetic and mechanical properties. The chapters in this book cover a
broad range of properties of nanocrystals synthesized for various applications....
Inductive proximity sensors are widely used in various applications to detect
metal devices. They consist of an oscillator, trigger, and switching amplifier. If a
metal object enters the electromagnetic field of the oscillator coil, eddy currents are
induced in this coil which change the amplitude of oscillation, which causes the trigger
stage to trip and the semiconductor output stage to switch.
The purpose of Power Electronics Handbook is to provide a
reference that is both concise and useful for engineering
students and practicing professionals. It is designed to cover
a wide range of topics that make up the field of power
electronics in a well-organized and highly informative
manner. The Handbook is a careful blend of both traditional
topics and new advancements. Special emphasis is placed on
practical applications, thus, this Handbook is not a theoretical
one, but an enlightening presentation of the usefulness of the
rapidly growing field of power electronics.
Within this book the fundamental concepts associated with the topic of power electronic control are covered alongside the latest equipment and devices, new application areas and associated computer-assisted methods.
*A practical guide to the control of reactive power systems
Electrical consumption, especially direct or variable frequency currents, has
strongly increased over 50 years in industry. This situation explains the growth of
At the beginning, when rectifiers replaced DC machines, only diodes and
thyristors were used. Then power transistors appeared and enabled the extension of
smaller power applications for domestic use. New research topics were developed
around converters and power devices.
Lieber, P. Yang, and Z.L. Wang in USA by the end of 90’s, successful demonstration of such
a large variety of functional devices has lead to a rapidly growing interest in nanowire
researches around the world and to a steep increase in the number of annual publications
(the ISI-Thomson ‘Web of Science’ database reports over 800 papers published in the year
2009 under the combined keywords ‘nanowires & semiconductors’).
Automation is the use of control systems (such as numerical control, programmable
logic control, and other industrial control systems), in concert with other applications of
information technology (such as computer-aided technologies [CAD, CAM, CAx]), to control
industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention. In the scope
of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization.
This book provides excellent review on the techniques for fabrication aimed to specific
applications for current technology. A tremendous amount of work is presented on
different modeling and simulation based on the applied semiconductor physics of
carbon nanotubes. In the past decades, although carbon nanotubes have undergone massive research,
considering the success of silicon, it has, nonetheless, been difficult to appreciate the
potential influence of carbon nanotubes in current technology....
Such a breathtaking pace of research has allowed to explore the field in several
directions within just a few years. The synthesis of free-standing nanowire structures now
nvolves a large variety of methods and materials, including elemental and compound (both
binary and multinary) semiconductors as well as complex modulated nanostructures.
Silicon carbide (SiC) is an interesting material that has found application in a variety of
industries. The two best known applications of this material are its use as an abrasive
material and its more recent use as a wide band gap semiconductor for high power,
high temperature electronic devices. The high hardness of this material, known for
many years, led to its use in machining tools and in other structural applications.
Although we are well into the fourth decade since the advent of the laser, the number
and type of lasers and their wavelength coverage continue to expand. One seeking a
photon source is now confronted with an enormous number of possible lasers and laser
wavelengths. In addition, various techniques of frequency conversion—harmonic
generation, optical parametric oscillation, sum- and difference-frequency mixing, and
Raman shifting—can be used to enlarge the spectral coverage.
After the ground breaking discovery of electrical charge carrier transport in
polymers in the late 1980s by Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki
Shirakawa [1–3], who were awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2000, the
question arose as to whether organic materials would also find applications as
organic semiconductors. This field really started to attract major attention after
the demonstration of the first organic light emitting device (OLED) in 1987 by
Tang and Van Slyke .
Silicon Carbide (SiC) and its polytypes have been a part of human civilization for a
long time; the technical interest of this hard and stable compound has been realized in
1885 and 1892 by Cowless and Acheson for grinding and cutting purpose, leading to its
manufacture on a large scale. The fundamental physical limitations of Si operation at
higher temperature and power are the strongest motivations for switching to wide
bandgap (WBG) semiconductors such as SiC for these applications.
New knowledge and tools are constantly expanding the range of applications for semiconductor devices, integrated circuits, and electronic packages. The solid-state computing, telecommunications, aerospace, automotive and consumer electronics industries all rely heavily on the quality of these methods and processes. In each of these industries, dramatic changes are underway. In addition to increased performance, next-generation computing is increasingly being performed by portable, hand-held computers. A...
Cd1-xMnxS nanoparticles (NPs) with size quantum confinement belong to the diluted
magnetic semiconductor (DMS) quantum dot (QD) class of materials that has been widely
studied in the last few years. The study of quasi-zero-dimensional Diluted Magnetic
Semiconductors (DMS), such as Cd1-xMnxS Quantum Dots (QDs), is strongly motivated due
to the localization of magnetic ions in the same places as the free-like electron and hole
carriers occurring in these nanomaterials [1,2].