This book focuses on the Fourier transform applications in the analysis of some types
of materials. The field of Fourier transform has seen explosive growth during the past
decades, as phenomenal advances both in research and application have been made.
During the preparation of this book, we found that almost all the textbooks on
materials analysis have a section devoted to the Fourier transform theory. Most of
those describe some formulas and algorithms, but one can easily be lost in seemingly
It gives me immense pleasure in introducing the book "Nanomaterials" based on state
of the art of un-doped and doped semiconductor metal oxide nanostructures, state of
the art of nano-composites as well as applied polymers, and their various potential
applications. This deals with nano-technological aspects of the synthesis, growth,
development, and potential applications of semiconductor nanostructure metal oxides.
The book “Advances in Diverse Industrial Applications of Nanocomposites” was well
thought about knitt ing several broad disciplines of nanocomposites in mind. A glance
through the pages of science and engineering literature shows that the use of nanocomposites
for emerging technologies represents one of the most active areas of research
and development throughout the fi elds of chemistry, physics, life sciences, and related
Nanomaterials, characterized by at least one dimension in the nanometer range,
can be considered to constitute a bridge between single molecules and infinite bulk
systems. Besides individual nanostructures involving clusters, nanoparticles,
quantum dots, nanowires and nanotubes, collections of these nanostructures in
the form of arrays and superlattices are of vital interest to the science and technology
Where the possibilities of a man reached the end, especially from the point of view of
technical solutions, the nature took over and formed our environment according to its
needs. Nowadays technical and engineering activities have a significantly greater
impact on the natural laws and rules once considered as changeless. Nonetheless we
have been approaching the same pattern that we followed in the past – we get inspired
by the nature. We imitate shapes, functions or we deal with combinations of the two.
In April 2000, the Japanese government established the National Strategy for
Industrial Technology in order to identify challenges and solutions for Japanese
industrial technology in the twenty-first century. The Second Science and Technology
Basic Plan, a five year plan that started in 2001, is a part of this national
strategy. According to this plan, a total of approximately $200 billion will be
invested in governmental research and development.
The DOE’s Carbon Sequestration Program also
supports global initiatives, such as the Carbon
Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), an
international climate change initiative that focuses on
the development of technologies to cost-effectively
capture and sequester CO2, and the International Energy
Agency (IEA). The Carbon Sequestration Program
is also providing technical and financial support to
international projects through the Core R&D MVA
Program. Projects include the Weyburn Project (see
This is believed to be the first book that takes a view of nanotechnology from a
telecommunications and networking perspective. Nanotechnology refers to the manipulation
of materials at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is getting a lot
of attention of late not only in academic settings and in laboratories around the
world, but also in government and venture capitalists’ initiatives. There now is a
major drive to commercialize the technology by all sorts of firms, ranging from startups
to Fortune 100 companies.
DNA chips are gaining increasing importance in different fields ranging from
medicine to analytical chemistry with applications in the latter in food safety
and food quality issues as well as in environmental protection. In the medical
field, DNA chips are frequently used in arrays for gene expression studies (e.g.
Quantum dots are one of the most promising types of nanoparticles, which are
exceptionally useful for variety of new applications because of their unique properties.
This is a collaborative book sharing and providing the academic community with a
base text that could serve as a reference in research by presenting up-to-date research
work on the field of quantum dot systems. We are most grateful to all authors of the
chapters for highlighting the important issue of the potential applications of quantum
dot system with a high quality work of their research....
Over the last decade, PV technology has shown the potential to become a major source of
power generation for the world – with robust and continuous growth even during times of
financial and economic crisis. That growth is expected to continue in the years ahead as
worldwide awareness of the advantages of PV increases. At the end of 2009, the world’s PV
cumulative installed capacity was approaching 23 GW. One year later it was 40 GW. In 2011,
more than 69 GW are installed globally and...
For this, credit is due to a set of economists and water quality engineers who were
actively exploring the application of taxes to the problems of large, polluted watersheds. In the
mid-1960s, large studies of the Delaware River Estuary were undertaken to assess, among other
things, the desirability of using effluent charges to control pollutants. In 1967, Johnson reported
that a “zoned” effluent charge program (where different tax levels were applied in different
zones along the estuary) would cost half as much as a “uniform treatment” regulation.
Sources of groundwater contamination associated with human activities are widespread and
include diffuse as well as point source pollution like land application of animal wastes and
agrochemicals in agriculture, disposal practices of human excreta and wastes such as leaking
sewers or sanitation systems, leakage of waste disposal sites, landfills, underground storage
tanks, pipelines and pollution due to both poor practices and accidental spills in mining,
industry, traffic, health care facilities and military sites. ...
Available as a dust, wettable powder, and emulsifiable concentrate, permethrin is used on more than 10
percent of the birds (layers, breeders, pullets) treated for ectoparasites. Treatment is most often applied
to birds at a rate of 1 gallon of spray (0.004 pound of active ingredient) spray per 100 birds. Premise
application at the same concentration is made at a rate of 1 to 2 gallons spray per 1,000 square feet of
surface area. Dust formulations (0.25 percent) are applied to birds (dust boxes) and premises (litter) at a
rate of 1 pound (0.003 pound of active ingredient) per 100...
With the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology over the last decades,
great progress has been made not only in the preparation and characterization of
nanomaterials, but also in their functional applications. As an important one-
dimensional nanomaterial, nanofibers have extremely high specific surface area
because of their small diameters, and nanofiber membranes are highly porous with
excellent pore interconnectivity.
This book focuses on the basic electrochemical applications of DNA in various areas, from basic principles to the most recent discoveries. The book comprises theoretical and experimental analysis of various properties of nucleic acids, research methods, and some promising applications.
This potentially unique work offers various approaches on the implementation of
nanowires. As it is widely known, nanotechnology presents the control of matter at
the nanoscale and nanodimensions within few nanometers, whereas this exclusive
phenomenon enables us to determine novel applications.
Nanowire technology has considerably improved and developed many technologies
and industry sectors in the field of IT, communications, computer technology,
medicine devices, sensors applications and many others....
It is not so far from now, although it is just the end of the XX century, the
time when we discussed outlooks of the use of biotechnologies in medicine and
pharmacy. These hopes were connected mainly with new microbiological products
and new materials (polymers) for pharmaceutics, biomedicine and organ transplantation.
Now in the XXI century, we are much more enthusiastic about outlooks
of nanotechnologies for our life and environment.
Advances in nanotechnology over the past decade have made scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) an indispensable and powerful tool for analyzing and
constructing new nanomaterials. Development of nanomaterials requires
advanced techniques and skills to attain higher quality images, understand
nanostructures, and improve synthesis strategies. A number of advancements
in SEM such as field emission guns, electron back scatter detection (EBSD),
and X-ray element mapping have improved nanomaterials analysis.