The science of ecology and the practice of management are critical to
our understanding of the Earth’s ecosystems and our efforts to conserve
them. This book attempts to bridge the gap between ecology and natural
resource management and, in particular, focuses on the discipline of
plant ecology as a foundation for vegetation and wildlife management.
It describes how concepts and approaches used by ecologists to study
communities and ecosystems can be applied to their management. Guy
The epidemiology of infectious diseases is one of the great triumphs of applied
ecology. In particular, the public health importance of parasites has
lead to a large literature, exploring their impact on the population dynamics,
population genetics and evolutionary biology of human populations. An
important milestone was the Dahlem Conference on population biology of infectious
diseases, held in 1981. The resulting book (Anderson and May 1982)
lucidly summarised the contemporary state of parasite ecology and epidemiology.
Ecology studies interactions among organisms and between organisms
and their environment in nature and is also concerned
with the effects that organisms have on the inanimate environment.
It is concerned with not only what kind of air a species
must have but also what effect that species has on the air.
This book is not an elementary ecology textbook. A textbook
would be longer and more didactic.
At the risk of merely adding to the bloated and growing literature available
on the disciplines of ecology and management while making little
meritorious contribution to either, this book attempts to bridge the gap
between these literatures and disciplines. As with most books, there are
few data and concepts in this text that have not been recorded previously.
However, ecology and management have not always been explicitly
linked, although each discipline can benefit from the other.
The discipline of Landscape Ecology is rapidly emerging as a motive force,
both in the domain of theoretical ecology, and in applied fields such as biodiversity
conservation planning. Without it and its further development, the
more reductionist elements of, and approaches to, ecology will continue to
make the discipline decreasingly relevant to land management, which will be
made totally on the basis of politics and socioeconomics.
Ecotoxicological models have been applied increasingly to perform chemical risk assessments since the first models of this kind emerged about 25 years ago. The first ecotoxicological models were applied to very specific cases — for instance, cadmium contamination of Lake Erie or mercury contamination of Mex Bay, Alexandria. The models were inspired by the experience gained in ecological modeling and therefore contained good descriptions of ecological processes. Slightly later, the so-called fate models emerged, which were first developed by McKay and others.
The second section of the book involves the regional biogeography of individual taxa.
This section begins with a chapter by Alberto Taylor and his colleagues on the
biogeography of cycads in Central America. Their natural history and experimental
ecological methods integrate the evolutionary context of the cycad lineage with
contemporary autecology, and they elucidate biogeographic patterns and conservation
priorities, the latter of which are under-appreciated but pressingly important in
From the beginnings of modern science, lakes have
fulfilled a focus of attention. Doubtless, this has
something to do with the lure that water bodies
hold for most of us, as well as for long having been a
source of food as well as water. Authors, from Aristotle
to Izaak Walton, committed much common
knowledge of the freshwater fauna to the formal
written record, so it is still a little surprising to realise
that the formal study of lakes—limnology
(from the Greek word, limnos, a lake)—is scarcely
more than a century in age (Forel 1895).
The EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is probably the most significant
legislative instrument in the water field that was introduced on an international basis
for many years. It moves towards integrated environmental management with key
objectives to prevent any further deterioration of water bodies, and protect and enhance
the status of aquatic ecosystems and associated wetlands. It aims to promote sustainable
water consumption and will contribute to mitigating the effects of floods and droughts.
Scale is a unifying concept that cuts across all natural and social sciences. At the
same time, scaling is a common challenge in both basic and applied research.
Accordingly, scale and scaling have become two of the most widely used buzzwords
in ecology today. Over the past two decades, more than a dozen books and many
more journal papers have been published on the problems of scale and scaling in
ecology and geophysical sciences. These publications, as reviewed in the chapters of
this book, have contributed significantly to our current understanding of scale issues.
Landscape ecology has emerged in the past decade as an important and useful tool for land-use planners and landscape architects. While professionals and scholars have begun to incorporate aspects of this new field into their work, there remains a need for a summary of key principles and how they might be applied in design and planning.This volume fills that need. It is a concise handbook that lists and illustrates key principles in the field, presenting specific examples of how the principles can be applied in a range of scales and diverse types of landscapes around the world....
Collection of reports on forestry research is published in the journal International Forestry topics: Ecological aspects of the floral phenology of the cork-oak (Q suber L): why the Annual and Biennial biotypes appear?
The main focus of this book is the presentation of the “inertial”
view of population growth. This view provides a rather simple
model for complex population dynamics, and is achieved at the
level of the single species, without invoking species interactions.
An important part of our account is the maternal effect. Investment
of mothers in the quality of their daughters makes the rate
of reproduction of the current generation depend not only on the
current environment but also on the environment experienced
by the preceding generation....
The “Present Your Perspective on an Issue” section of the test assesses your ability to think critically
about a topic of general interest and to clearly express your thoughts about it in writing. Each topic,
presented in quotation marks, makes a claim about an issue that test takers can discuss from various
perspectives and apply to many different situations or conditions. Your task is to present a compelling
case for your own position on the issue. The best approach to this task is read the topic carefully.
The primary purpose of preparing this edition is to provide an update. In the 14 years since
the first edition was published, ecological risk assessment has gone from being a marginal
activity to being a relatively mature practice. There are now standard frameworks and
guidance documents in the United States and several other countries. Ecological risk assessment
is applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the
importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds, and other environmental
The idea to apply an assessment of ecosystem health to environmental
management emerged in the late 1980s. The parallels with the assessment of
human health are very obvious. We go to the doctor to get a diagnosis (to
determine what is wrong) and hopefully initiate a cure to bring us back to
normal. The doctor will take various measurements and make examinations
(pulse, blood pressure, sugar in the urine etc.) before making a diagnosis and
suggesting a cure.
If better management (BMP) was adopted in Vietnam there is evidence that the current trends and past environmental degradation can be stopped and even reversed, and shrimp production efficiency can be increased.
Sewage sludge as an uncalled for product of wastewater treatment poses the challenge to
society of disposing of it, but at the same time gives us the opportunity of beneficial use by
closing the cycle of nutrients: sludge derived from agricultural activity must return to soil if
a sustainable and ecologically sound management of these materials is desirable (SEQUI et
al. 2000). At present the major ways of disposing of sewage sludges are deposition, landfill
and incineration, only part of the sludges are used in agriculture. ...
Ecological Risk Assessment of Wetlands - Cho đến gần đây, thuật ngữ đánh giá rủi ro thường được áp dụng đối với dự toán của
nguy cơ đối với sức khỏe con người, thường là do tiếp xúc với hóa chất. Ví dụ, một nguy cơ ung thư
đánh giá là một ước tính về nguy cơ đối với con người từ các hợp chất gây ung thư.
Tuy nhiên gần đây, thuật ngữ đánh giá rủi ro đã được áp dụng cho các hệ thống sinh thái.
The Baltic Sea is one of the most investigated water bodies in the world. For
decades, the many highly industrialised nations around the Baltic have financed
basic and applied investigations, as well as the building and development of
research stations and vessels.
After World War II, research in the Baltic Proper was intensified and investigations
became much more international. The main goals of such investigations were
analysis of the eutrophication and pollution of the Baltic Sea, and development of
mitigating strategies (e.g. the HELCOM-Program).