Research on ion channels has exploded in the last few decades and it is now
clear that ion channels play essential roles in cell biology and physiology, with
their dysfunction being the root cause of many human diseases. Understanding
human biology in the post-genome sequencing era requires that the function of
the protein products encoded by these recently sequenced genes be quantified.
We introduce a probabilistic noisychannel model for question answering and we show how it can be exploited in the context of an end-to-end QA system. Our noisy-channel system outperforms a stateof-the-art rule-based QA system that uses similar resources. We also show that the model we propose is flexible enough to accommodate within one mathematical framework many QA-specific resources and techniques, which range from the exploitation of WordNet, structured, and semi-structured databases to reasoning, and paraphrasing.
In the following, we identify the unique subgame perfect equilibrium of
the sequential game described above. Furthermore, government’s regulation
is shown to reduce the diversity in the programs oﬀered by the channels at
equilibrium: the lower the upperlimit imposed by the government to the ad-
vertising rate, the weaker the diversity in the programs!
There are at least three papers closely related to the present analysis.
Vaglio (1995) proposes a Hotelling-type model of the audience for TV-
broadcasting which shares several properties with ours.
In this chapter you will understand how and why marketing specialists develop to make channel systems more effective. Understand the universal functions of marketing. Understand why some firms use direct channel systems while others rely on intermediaries and indirect systems. Understand how to develop co-operative relationships - and avoid conflict - in channel systems,...
In chapter 11 you will understand how and why marketing specialists develop to make channel systems more effective. Understand the universal functions of marketing. Understand why some firms use direct channel systems while others rely on intermediaries and indirect systems. Understand how to develop co-operative relationships - and avoid conflict - in channel systems.
A centrifugal pump is a rotating machine in which flow and pressure are generated
dynamically. The inlet is not walled off from the outlet as is the case with positive dis-
placement pumps,whether they are reciprocating or rotary in configuration. Rather, a cen-
trifugal pump delivers useful energy to the fluid or “pumpage” largely through velocity
changes that occur as this fluid flows through the impeller and the associated fixed pas-
sageways of the pump; that is, it is a “rotodynamic” pump.
Chapter 13. Retailers, Wholesalers and Their Strategy Planning. When You Finish This Chapter, You Should: 1. Understand how retailers plan their marketing strategies. 2. Know about the many kinds of retailers that work with producers and wholesalers as members of channel systems.
Chapter 11. Place and Development of Channel Systems. When You Finish This Chapter, You Should: 1. Understand what product classes suggest about Place objectives. 2. Understand why some ﬁrms use direct channel systems while others rely on intermediaries and indirect systems.
This book follows from my first edition and is intended to provide a thorough,
up to date, treatment of wireless physical communications. The book is
derived from a compilation of course material that I have taught in a graduatelevel
course on physical wireless communications at Georgia Tech over the past
decade. This textbook differs from others on the subject by stressing mathematical
modeling and analysis. My approach is to include detailed derivations
from first principles.
This book explores both the state-of-the-art and the latest achievements in UWB antennas and propagation. It has taken a theoretical and experimental approach to some extent, which is more useful to the reader. The book highlights the unique design issues which put the reader in good pace to be able to understand more advanced research.
Another important change can be traced to the 1960s and 1970s, when some producers and dealers began
testing the possibility of selling rough diamonds through alternative channels instead of the traditional
practice of selling through the unified sales channel of De Beers’ CSO (see.Figure.8).
In the 1990s major producers began breaking away from the CSO (later transformed into the Diamond
Trading Company, or DTC) to start selling their diamonds independently on the global market.
As with every hypothesis test, inference based on alpha estimates can lead to the detection
of a lucky fund, namely a fund with a significant estimated alpha, while its true
alpha is equal to zero. The difficulty raised by the standard approach is that it implies a
multiple hypothesis test since the null hypothesis of no performance is not tested once,
but M times. Accounting for the presence of luck in a multiple testing framework is
much more complex, because luck cannot be measured by the significance level applied
to each fund.
efficiency and quality. NGOs should be involved as management partners of the
government for the shrimp cultivating areas. This will help reduce social tensions
among various groups in the cultivating areas and ensure participation of the poor
communities in all activities including decision making process.
9. Financial Support: Farmers, depot owners, small boat owners and transporters
suffer from lack of capital to perform fishing activities. They have to rely on
informal sources such as middlemen and traders for credit at a very high cost.
Since pay per click scams depend on technology, brands can use technology-based
strategies to fight them. Highly effective automated solutions can detect search ad
abuse, prioritize for the worst offenders and then automatically take action. Initiating
and driving these strategies should be a top priority for marketing organizations that
wish to maximize returns from their paid search investments.
Most marketing teams work with their legal department to develop policies, report
templates and procedures.
Another class of linear codes, known as
We study the structure of the encoder.
We study different ways for representing
the encoder.Convolutional codes offer an approach to error control
coding substantially different from that of block codes.
A convolutional encoder:
encodes the entire data stream, into a single codeword.
does not need to segment the data stream into blocks of fixed
size (Convolutional codes are often forced to block structure by periodic
is a machine with memory.
The most thorough, up-to-date reference on channel equalization—from basic concepts to complex modeling techniques
In today's instant-access society, a high premium is placed on information that can be stored and communicated effectively. As a result, storage densities and communications rates are being pushed to capacity, causing information symbols to interfere with one another.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Channel Sensing without Quiet Period for Cognitive Radio Systems: A Pilot Cancellation Approach
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Game Theoretical Approaches for Transport-Aware Channel Selection in Cognitive Radio Networks
Automated service quality has been recognised as the factor which determines the suc cess or failure of electronic commerce. Those models current ly available to measure automated service quality are limited in their focus, encompassing only one electronic channel – the internet – thereby ignoring attributes of the other automated service channels.