Approximate concentration

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  • The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Earth Science provides a compendium of more than 10,000 terms that are central to the broad range of disciplines comprising earth science. The coverage in this Second Edition is focused on the areas of climatology, geochemistry, geodesy, geography, geology, geophysics, hydrol- ogy, meteorology, and oceanography, with new terms added and others revised as necessary.

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  • Although modern science has made some major strides in understanding cancer and its molecular basis, the knowledge about how to prevent or treat cancer is still lagging behind. Although interruption of a cell signaling pathway, also called monotherapy, has been the paradigm approach until now, experience in the last few years has revealed that multitargeted therapy has a better chance for success. Modern medicine is evidence based and practices the use of a discrete, well-defined chemical entity for the treatment of given diseases.

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  • Much of enzyme kinetics builds on simplifications enabled by the quasi-steady-state approximation and is highly useful when the concentration of the enzyme is much lower than that of its substrate. However, in vivo, this condition is often violated. In the present study, we show that, under con-ditions of realistic yet high enzyme concentrations, the quasi-steady-state approximation may readily be off by more than a factor of four when pre-dicting concentrations.

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  • The study was conducted at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). In 2009, 46% of the students were born outside of Australia, approximately 30% were from a non-English speaking background, and 21% were enrolled as international students. In 2009, the faculties with the largest concentrations of international students were Business (34%) and Engineering and Information Technology (29%).

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  • Our planet’s atmosphere is thought to have changed gradually and over a very wide range of CO2 concentrations throughout history. From ancient atmospheric gases trapped in ice bubbles, we have strong evidence indicating that atmospheric CO2 values reached minimum concentrations of approximately 180 parts per million during the Last Glacial Maximum, which was only 15,000 years ago. At the other extreme, calculations suggest that some 500 million years ago the atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have been about 4000 to 5000 parts per million....

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  • The current study was undertaken in a new manufactured house set up as a research facility. The plan was to conduct longitudinal measurements of VOC concentrations in the house along with measurements of key physical parameters including house air change rate, indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity, and wind conditions over a period of approximately one year. The primary objective was to evaluate changes in the emissions of formaldehyde and other VOCs in response to time, house air change rate, and the other parameters.

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  • Monetary Policy , the Banking System, and Short -term Money Instrusments Measuring market concentration I define local housing markets as Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), Census Bureau approximations of local housing markets defined by observed commuting patterns.35 The SAT data that I use to measure student outcomes are taken from the early 1990s. Consequently, I use 1990 MSA definitions and draw demographic characteristics of each MSA from the 1990 Census.

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  • Equity and fixed income funds play an important role for the impressive Thai mutual fund growth. With an in depth analysis, we found two major facts. Firstly, Thai mutual fund industry is concentrated in fixed income mutual funds especially short-term money market funds. Secondly, approximately 50% of the AUM invested in Thai equity mutual funds are from LTF and RMF or growth in equity mutual funds is affected by tax incentive.

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  • Migratory erythema with erosions; favors lower extremities and girdle area In erythema gyratum repens, one sees numerous mobile concentric arcs and wavefronts that resemble the grain in wood. A search for an underlying malignancy is mandatory in a patient with this eruption. Erythema migrans is the cutaneous manifestation of Lyme disease, which is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. In the initial stage (3–30 days after tick bite), a single annular lesion is usually seen, which can expand to ≥10 cm in diameter.

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  • Policy-relevant background – This is an estimate based on air pollution models of the natural background ozone concentrations that would exist without sources of air pollution from human activity, and therefore cannot be affected by emissions control efforts (Fiore 2004).

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  • Extrarenal Nonrenal causes of hypovolemia include fluid loss from the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and respiratory system and third-space accumulations (burns, pancreatitis, peritonitis). Approximately 9 L of fluid enters the gastrointestinal tract daily, 2 L by ingestion and 7 L by secretion. Almost 98% of this volume is reabsorbed so that fecal fluid loss is only 100–200 mL/d. Impaired gastrointestinal reabsorption or enhanced secretion leads to volume depletion.

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  • Exposure to carbon monoxide reduces maximum exercise ability in healthy young individuals and reduces the time to angina and, in some cases, the time to ST-segment depression in people with cardiovascular disease, albeit at a con- centration that is lower than that needed to reduce exercise ability in healthy in- dividuals.

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  • The concentration in the large public company audit market is also unlikely to be reduced in the near term by midsize and smaller accounting firms because a significant majority is not interested in auditing large public companies and those that are interested face various challenges in expanding their capability to do so. Over 70 percent of midsize and smaller accounting firms indicated that they were not attempting to obtain large public company clients.

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  • Tumor Markers Careful monitoring of the serum tumor markers AFP and hCG is essential in the management of patients with GCT, as these markers are important for diagnosis, as prognostic indicators, in monitoring treatment response, and in the detection of early relapse. Approximately 70% of patients presenting with disseminated nonseminomatous GCT have increased serum concentrations of AFP and/or hCG. While hCG concentrations may be increased in patients with either nonseminoma or seminoma histology, the AFP concentration is increased only in patients with nonseminoma.

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  • Sodium and Water: Introduction Composition of Body Fluids Water is the most abundant constituent in the body, comprising approximately 50% of body weight in women and 60% in men. This difference is attributable to differences in the relative proportions of adipose tissue in men and women. Total body water is distributed in two major compartments: 55–75% is intracellular [intracellular fluid (ICF)], and 25–45% is extracellular [extracellular fluid (ECF)]. The ECF is further subdivided into intravascular (plasma water) and extravascular (interstitial) spaces in a ratio of 1:3.

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  • Benzene is a colourless, liquid, flammable, aromatic hydrocarbon that is a component of petrol, or may result from incomplete combustion of fuels. Benzene, a natural component of crude oil, is emitted from a range of industrial and combustion sources. The major source of benzene is motor vehicles—both vehicle exhaust (contributing approximately 75% to 80% of emissions) and evaporative emissions (including evaporation losses from motor vehicles and evaporation losses during the handling, distribution and storage of petrol).

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  • Maryland. Repace (2005) measured outdoor fine particle and carcinogen concentrations from OTS on the campus of the University of Maryland at Baltimore. Using controlled experiments, Repace (2005) found that cigarette smoke RSP concentrations decline approximately inversely with distance downwind from the point source, whereas cigarette smoke carcinogen concentrations decline approximately inversely as the square of the distance from source to receptor.

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  • Peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN) concentrations measured at a commercial site approximately 7 km north of the La Merced site were similar to those found in Los Angeles during the early 1970s. 16 PAN levels exceeded 30 ppb on five of the days sampled and exceeded 10 ppb on all but a few days of the study. 17 Although there is no air quality standard for PAN, high PAN concentrations are a good indicator of the organic oxidizing capacity of the urban air mass, since they are directly connected to organic peroxy radical formation and nitrogen dioxide (both ozone-forming precursors).

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  • More than half of the world's population relies on solid fuels, including biomass fuels (wood, charcoal, dung, agricultural residues) and coal, to meet their basic energy needs. Cooking and heating with solid fuels on open fires or traditional stoves results in high levels of indoor air pollution. Globally, indoor air pollution is responsible for approximately 1.6 million deaths every year. Various interventions are available to reduce indoor air pollution and associated health impacts at the household level.

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  • Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry and photo- acoustic spectroscopy, we analysed the evolution of vola- tile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gases dur- ing an approximately one-week measurement period each in a pigsty and a sheep shed at the Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL) in Mariensee, Germany. When ac- tivities in the sheep shed were most intense during feeding hours and manure removal, concentration surges of VOCs were observed, which strongly correlated with methane and ammonia levels.

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