We prove the Minimum Vertex Cover problem to be NP-hard to approximate to within a factor of 1.3606, extending on previous PCP and hardness of approximation technique. To that end, one needs to develop a new proof framework, and to borrow and extend ideas from several ﬁelds. 1. Introduction The basic purpose of computational complexity theory is to classify computational problems according to the amount of resources required to solve them. In particular, the most basic task is to classify computational problems to those that are eﬃciently solvable and those that are not. ...
Forces are at work which may be changing the way the general public thinks
about the autopsy. The past few decades have seen a consistent, almost
depressing drop in autopsy rates across the world. Once considered the
foundation of medical science, the autopsy has fallen into relative disfavor.
As the authors of this book discuss, the overall autopsy rate in England has
dropped to approximately 25%, with 22% representing coroner mandated
cases and only 3% attributable to hospital/academic cases.
We introduce cube summing, a technique that permits dynamic programming algorithms for summing over structures (like the forward and inside algorithms) to be extended with non-local features that violate the classical structural independence assumptions. It is inspired by cube pruning (Chiang, 2007; Huang and Chiang, 2007) in its computation of non-local features dynamically using scored k-best lists, but also maintains additional residual quantities used in calculating approximate marginals. ...
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to: Explain how probabilities are assigned to a continuous random variable, explain the characteristics of a normal probability distribution, define and calculate z value corresponding to any observation on a normal distribution, determine the probability a random observation is in a given interval on a normal distribution using the standard normal distribution, use the normal probability distribution to approximate the binomial probability distribution.
Expanded to include a broader range of problems than the bestselling first edition, Finite Element Method Using MATLAB: Second Edition presents finite element approximation concepts, formulation, and programming in a format that effectively streamlines the learning process. It is written from a general engineering and mathematical perspective rather than that of a solid/structural mechanics basis.
Each year , approximately 71,500 women in the United States are diagnosed with a gynecologic cancer.
While all women are at risk for developing gynecologic cancers, few will ever develop one. Still, it is
important to know the signs because there is no way to know for sure who will get a gynecologic cancer.
The information included in this booklet will help you recognize any warning signs, so you can ask your health
care provider about them. These signs and symptoms often are related to something other than gynecologic
cancer. But it is...
Therefore, research has shifted to focus
development of pseudopolynomial time algorithm, diagnosis, and approximately
algorithms for QoS path limited.
In this chapter we present an accurate description of current state-of-art and provide a
overview of our work in the use of the concept of learning to strengthen focus on wireless
Sensor Networks. We focused our attention by developing systems based on this model
called AMDR and EDAR.
Learning how to draw a rhinoceros has never been easier. No need to head down to the zoo or go on a safari, you're going to make your very own rhino come alive right before your very eyes with just a few simple steps. Sharpen your pencil and follow along below. STEP-1: Start with the Head and Body Shapes Make two ovals approximately the same size. The difference between them is that one will be vertical for the head while the other one will be horizontal for the body. These ovals will be overlapping each other. Then at the top...
This project explores the development of a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) simulator using ray tracing techniques. This project gives an overview of ray tracing techniques, beamforming, MIMO channel models and MIMO systems. It explains the ability of MIMO systems to offer significant capacity increases over traditional wireless systems, by exploiting the phenomenon of multipath. By modelling high frequency radio waves as travelling along localized linear trajectory paths, they can be approximated as rays, just as in optics....
Overview The use of function approximation actually has a long history in control systems. For instance, we use function approximation ideas in the development of models for control design and analysis, and conventional adaptive control generally involves the on-line tuning of linear functions (linear approximators) to match unknown linear functions (e.g., tuning a linear model to match a linear plant with constant but unknown parameters) as we discussed in Chapter 1.
They clam approximately 500 species, widely distributed in coastal intertidal zone of tropical temperate countries. Our country has about 40 species of 7 breed groups, distributed along the coast from north to south.
Northern coastal areas have clam oil (Meretrix lime), clam password (Meretrix llusoria Rumplius). Southern coastal areas have clam (Meretrix lyrata Sowerby).
Clams are mollusks team has great potential in the tide country. Culture technique is not complicated, short cycle, investment less valuable export.
The quality organization will provide CQAM, DQAM, Staff Inspectors, and sampling and
testing staff to meet the project schedule. The staffing levels indicated in Staffing Exhibit are
based on a preliminary construction schedule and represent an approximate number of personnel
needed per month. The staffing levels will be adjusted on a monthly and weekly basis, depending
on the work being accomplished on each day, so that all work will be inspected and tested
according to the QMP.
Next, we can modify our model to account for different ﬁrm sizes. For notational convenience and
ease of exposition, we have used a continuum model. A ﬁrm hires a unit mass of consumers. The size of
the ﬁrm then becomes a normalization and hence has no bearing on the dynamics and steady-state
properties. In practice, ﬁrms hire a ﬁnite number of workers, and the law of large number becomes a
poor approximation when the ﬁrm is small. Even when a small ﬁrm draws from the same work force as
any other ﬁrm, the variance of workers’ health-care cost may be larger.
The emission factors of the 14 most abundant VOCs on sequential cold weather sampling
dates (January 17 and March 12, 2003) are compared in Table 4. Indoor and outdoor
temperatures and percent RHs were approximately equivalent between these dates (Table 1).
However, the January air change rate was 0.58 h-1
versus 0.31 h-1
in March, likely due to the
difference in wind conditions. Within both the aldehyde and the terpene hydrocarbon chemical
classes, the ratio of the emission factor at the lower air change rate to the emission factor at the
higher air change rate was near...
In Mekong delta, mangrove forest distributes along the coastline of 700 km and it is a homeland for mud crab in tropical areas. The mud crab becomes potential to be alternative species from failed shrimp farming. Particularly, mud crab hatchery has been introduced and operated recently at Bac lieu, Tra vinh, Soc Trang, Ben Tre, Kien giang and Ca mau provinces. However, the survival from zoea stage to crablet stage 1 is low at approximately 5%. In addition, like shrimp rearing, the mud crab hatchery is using antibiotic as major treatment to prevent bacteria and fungi.
The first, most conventional way to characterize the global health picture is a description
of health and disease. Today, the overall picture for child health and maternal health in poor
countries is worrisome indeed. While child mortality has steadily declined in the last two
decades, still approximately 10.8 million children under the age of five die each year. Progress
on key indicators is slowing, and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, child mortality is on the rise.
The great bulk of the mortality decline since the 1970s is attributable to reduction in deaths...
International migrants include rural and urban
women and men with different socio-economic
profiles and ages. Some are highly educated and
specialized people (whose migration is referred to
as ‘brain drain’). Some are poor people for whom
migration is a subsistence strategy. The United
Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimates that
the typical profile of migrants comprises young
women and men from 15 to 35 years of age,
generally belonging to medium and low socio-
economic groups, but not to the poorest segments
of society (Hatton and Williamson 2004, 1-30).
Analyzing future distributed real-time systems, automotive
and avionic systems, is requiring compositional hard
real-time analysis techniques. Well known established techniques
as SymTA/S and the real-time calculus are candidates solving
the mentioned problem. However both techniques use quite
simple event models. SymTA/S is based on discrete events the
real-time calculus on continuous functions. Such simple models
has been choosen because of the computational complexity of
the considered mathematical operations required for real-time
This paper presents a global review of the strain smoothing method to finite element analysis for two-dimension elastostatics. The strain at each point is replaced by a non – local approximation over a smoothing function. With choosing a constant smoothed function and applying the divergence theorem, the stiffness matrix is calculated on boundaries of smoothing elements (smoothing cells) instead of their interior. The presented method gains a high accuracy compared with the standard FEM without increasing computational cost. 1....
Research intensity1 in Vietnam is less than 0.2% which is lower that most developing countries
of 0.5% and much lower than developed country average of 1.5%. GoV has targeted a 12%
increase of central government funding levels from 2006 – 2011 and to date total funding
increases in agricultural research funding have exceeded that level. MARD research funding
provides approximately 65% of all forms of local funding in Vietnam.