Aquatic ecosystems

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  • More than ten years ago, two of us (AGH and DGR) were lucky enough to edit a previous symposium of the British Ecological Society (BES) – Aquatic Ecology: Scale, Pattern and Process (Giller, Hildrew & Raffaelli, 1994). In the Introduction to that volume, we pointed out that the BES had not devoted a single previous symposium to aquatic ecosystems.

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  • The state of aquatic ecosystems reflects the general state of the biosphere. The situation in the biosphere affected by anthropogenic factors was characterized as “a slow explosion” (Fedorov 1987). The global change in the biosphere and climatic system of the Earth is a manifestation of this “slow explosion” (World Resources 1990–1991, Izrael et al. 1992).

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  • Plant species that invade an alien area and outgrow the native vegetation, establishing and increasing their own territory, often lead to negative economic, environmental, and social impacts. Even native species can behave like invasive species by their exponential spread. Similarly, not all non-native species are invasive. Many alien invasive species, however, do threaten the health and integrity of our terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

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  • This book addresses the significant environmental changes experienced by high latitude and high altitude ecosystems at the beginning of the 21st century. Increased temperatures and precipitation, reduction in sea ice and glacier ice, the increased levels of UV-radiation and the long-range transported contaminants in arctic and alpine regions are stress factors that challenge terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

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  • From the early explorers onwards, visitors to the Arctic and to Antarctica have commented with great interest on the presence of lakes, wetlands, and fl owing waters. These environments encompass a spectacular range of conditions for aquatic life, from dilute surface melt ponds, to deep, highly stratifi ed, hypersaline lakes.

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  • This chapter explain how the first and second laws of thermodynamics apply to ecosystems; define and compare gross primary production, net primary production, and standing crop; explain why energy flows but nutrients cycle within an ecosystem; explain what factors may limit primary production in aquatic ecosystems;...

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  • It is a general belief that the fruits and vegetables that our parents ate when they were growing up were more nutritious and enriched with essential mineral nutrients and were less contaminated with toxic trace elements than the ones that are being consumed by us currently. A study of the mineral content of fruits and vegetables grown in Great Britain between 1930 and 1980 has added weight to that belief with findings of such decreases in nutrient density.

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  • This book proposes a framework for a national-scale program to monitor changes in mercury concentrations in the environment following the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions. The book is the product of efforts initiated at a workshop held in Pensacola, Florida, in September 2003, involving more than 30 experts in the fields of atmospheric mercury transport and deposition, mercury cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs and wildlife.

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  • The idea to edit this book started with an e-mail from Suzanne Mekking of Springer Science and Business Media who wanted to make an appointment to talk about current needs for new books in the field of aquatic sciences. During that meeting, she attempted to persuade me into writing a book about my field of research – ecological interactions among coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds by reef fishes. At first, I was not interested due to the large amount of work this would encompass, and my already overloaded work schedule....

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  • Benthic algae have been intensively studied, especially over the past two decades. This intensity has been stimulated by the widespread recognition that benthic algae are ideal indicators of the health of many, if not most, aquatic ecosystems. With this book we hope to synthesize this vital area of research and share its essence with our colleagues and students. We started with an outline of the myriad abiotic and biotic determinants of benthic algal ecology.

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  • Looking up ‘‘aquatic food web’’ on Google provides a dizzying array of eclectic sites and information (and disinformation!) to choose from. However, even within this morass it is clear that aquatic food-web research has expanded greatly over the last couple of decades, and includes a wide array of studies from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. This book attempts to bring together and synthesize some of the most recent perspectives on aquatic food-web research, with a particular emphasis on integrating that knowledge within an ecosystem framework....

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  • The present book is the final milestone in the radioecology programme, RAD, carried out from 1990 to 1993 under the Nordic Committee for Nuclear Safety Research, NKS. This work was done in parallel to three other NKS programmes: Reactor safety (SIK), Waste and decommissioning (KAN), and Emergency preparedness (BER). The NKS was established in 1966 and was financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers from 1977 to 1989.

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  • This Chapter addresses SMEs that are qualified to perform complementary manufacturing activities as producers, subcontractors or suppliers. They are used to participate in different supply chains taking the form of networks where every node manages in turn its own supply chain. More precisely, there are at least three main models (or viewpoints) to take into account:  Medium-large company and its supply chain members. When issuing an order the medium-large company should select the most convenient supplier depending on factors like cost, lead time, capacity, supply conditions, distance.

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  • The present book is the final milestone in the radioecology programme, RAD, carried out from 1990 to 1993 under the Nordic Committee for Nuclear Safety Research, NKS. This work was done in parallel to three other NKS programmes: Reactor safety (SIK), Waste and decommissioning (KAN), and Emergency preparedness (BER). The NKS was established in 1966 and was financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers from 1977 to 1989.

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  • The variety of macrofauna in limnetic and estuarine ecosystems is related to the spatial arrangement of habitats with different quantitative and qualitative complexities (Heck & Crowder, 1991; Taniguchi et al., 2003; Genkai-Kato, 2007; Gullström et al., 2008). Among these habitats, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), harbour a high diversity of molluscs, macrocrustaceans and fish, by favouring a greater survival and growth of the associated populations (Minello & Zimmerman, 1991; Pelicice & Agostinho, 2006; Rozas & Minello, 2006; Cetra & Petrere, 2007; Genkai-Kato, 2007; Hansen et al.

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  • The generation of wastes as a result of human activities has been continuously speeding up since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Hence, both optimized waste water treatment technologies and modern tools to assess the effects of pollution sources are necessary to prevent the contamination of aquatic ecosystems The book offers an interdisciplinary collection of topics concerning waste water treatment technologies, water quality monitoring and evaluation of waste water impact on natural environments.

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  • Human activities may seriously affect the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Pathogen organisms, nutrients, heavy metals, toxic elements, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and various other organic micropollutants enter to aquatic environment through a range of point and diffuse sources. The presence of these compounds has adverse impacts on aquatic biota. It is well recognised that the distribution and the abundance of various species in aquatic systems are directly related to the water quality and hydrological conditions....

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  • The research effort on which this book is based has involved continuous analyses of various river–estuarine and coastal systems in the southeastern United States since 1970. These long-term studies have been carried out using a combination of field descriptive and experimental (lab and field) approaches.

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  • The long-term approach to achieving protection is “ecological separation.” A true ecological separation is defined as no inter-basin transfer of aquatic organisms via the Chicago Waterway System at any time – 100% effectiveness. Ecological separation prohibits the movement or interbasin transfer of aquatic organisms between the Mississippi and Great Lakes basins via the CWS. Once established, the impacts of invasive species on ecosystem health are permanent and irreversible.

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  • The contamination of metals is a major environmental problem and especially in the aquatic environment. Some metals are potentially toxic or carcinogenic even at very low concentration and are thus, hazardous to human if they enter the food chain. Metals are usually dissolved into the aquatic system through natural or anthropogenic sources. Metal ions are distributed thoroughly during their transport in different compartments of the aquatic ecosystems, in biotic or abiotic compartment such as fishes, water, sediment, plant.

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