Aquifer systems

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  • Natural systems for the treatment and management of municipal and industrial wastewaters and residuals feature processes that use minimal energy and minimal or no chemicals, and they produce relatively lower amounts of residual solids. This book is intended for the practicing engineers and scientists who are involved in the planning, design, construction, evaluation, and operation of wastewater management facilities.

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  • The study of geology, soils in the selection of sites for water spreading or infiltration recharging system are rather more important than for any well recharging systems. The basic aspects, which are considered, are: Moving the water through the vadose zone Making the water move through aquifer away from infiltration recharge sites so as to raise water buildup of ground water mound or ridge Therefore, for infiltration recharge systems the following area characteristics are desirable...

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  • CHAPTER 9 Geographical Information Systems and Modeling of Saltwater Intrusion in the Capoterra Alluvial Plain (Sardinia, Italy) G. Barrocu, M.G. Sciabica, L. Muscas 1. INTRODUCTION A comprehensive study of the Capoterra alluvial plain (Southern Sardinia, Italy) has been carried out by the Engineering Geology and Applied Geophysics Section of the Department of Land Engineering at Cagliari University, within the frame of the international projects MEDALUS and AVICENNE 73, funded by the European Union.

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  • This volume consists of a collection of current studies on free electron lasers. Free Electron Lasers covers the analysis of fundamentals and questions of design of these devices functioning from the infrared to ultraviolet or xuv wavelength regimes. In addition to the comparison with conventional lasers, analyses of some related topics concerning near-field and cavity electrodynamics, compact and table-top arrangements and strong radiation–induced exotic states of matter are presented.

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  • Water-quality engineering is a specialty area in environmental engineering that includes the subspecialties of water treatment, wastewater treatment, and water-quality control in natural systems. This textbook is intended to encompass the latter subspecialty, and the content of this book constitutes baseline knowledge expected of water-quality engineers and managers.

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  • Compared to other ecosystems, wetlands have received an exceptional amount of attention. Wetlands are valuable as sources, sink and transformers of a multitude of chemical, biological and genetic materials. They stabilize water supplies, clean polluted waters, protect shorelines, and recharge groundwater aquifers. They have increasingly become recognized for their unique ecological functions in the environment and are the focus of increased research by scientists and study programs by schools, communities, and nature centers.

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  • Within the overall transport process, attenuation processes may cause movement of the chemical to differ from that of the bulk flowing groundwater, for example dispersion, sorption and chemical or biological degradation of the chemical. Such attenuation processes potentially act to mitigate the impact of chemicals and are a function of both the specific chemical and geologic domain. Indeed, attenuation may vary significantly between individual chemicals and within different geological settings.

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  • All ground water sources should be located a safe distance from sources of contamination. In cases where sources are severely limited; however, a ground water aquifer that might become contaminated may be considered for a water supply, if treatment is provided. After a decision has been made to locate a water source in an area, it is necessary to determine the distance the source should be placed from the origin of contamination and the direction of water movement. A determination of a safe distance is based on specific local factors described in the section on "Sanitary Survey.

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  • It is important to understand at the outset the natural hydrochemical conditions that exist in aquifer systems, as these provide the necessary baseline from which quality changes caused by human impacts can be determined. The natural hydrochemical conditions may also affect the behaviour of some pollutants. Because groundwater movement is typically slow and residence times long, there is potential for interaction between the water and the rock material through which it passes.

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  • Water resources could in principle be managed by several users as common property resources. In the absence of effective mechanisms for co-management at the watershed or river-basin level, however, water resources often become open access. Conflicts often arise between upstream and downstream users. Irrigators at the tail end of a large irrigation system may have the formal right to water, but their share may be taken by farmers near the head of the system, who may even have switched to higher value and more water consumptive crops through collusion with irrigation officials.

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  • The design of an aquifer remediation operation is merely a case of practical experience today. The contaminant is flushed out of the soil by means of a system of injection and recovery wells. The time needed and the amount of water that has to be flushed through the soil to reach a certain required concentration are both important. The amount of water is expressed in terms of the so-called flush factor, which is equal to the ratio of the volume of this water and the volume of the pores in the soil to be flushed. The time needed and the...

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  • Every year, farm operators apply more than 12 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer and 8 million tons of phos- phorus fertilizer to agricultural land in the U.S. Unless carefully managed, much of it is carried off the fields by runoff or percolates into drainage systems, eventually ending up in streams, rivers, lakes and underground aquifers. Animal manure from livestock is also an important contributor to nutrient pollution, particularly phos- phorus.

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