Diversity of plant form and life history and their distribution onto different habitats suggest
that plant functions should underlie this diversity, providing tools to successfully and differentially
thrive in every habitat. The knowledge of these functions is then the key to understand
community and ecosystem structure and functioning, something that attracted the
interest and effort of many plant ecologists trying to establish patterns of adaptive specialization
Why consider the role of place in Milton’s poetry? A few years ago, while
attending a seminar conducted by Diane McColley on the relation of nature
to culture in the literary history of the natural world, I found myself
returning again and again to the same question: what happens when culture
is privileged over place? No mere academic question, as the last acres
of the place my family had farmed for generations had given way to bulldozers
the year before, I found myself feeling that I had somehow lost my
place in the world....
1 Foraging: An Overview
Hudson Bay in winter is frozen and forbidding. But, at a few special places where strong tidal currents are deﬂected to the surface by ridges on the seaﬂoor, there are permanent openings in the ice, called polynyas, that serve as the Arctic equivalent of desert oases.
As shown later, much of the resultant risk to human
populations and the ecosystems upon which they depend comes from the pro-
jected extremely rapid rate of change in climatic conditions. Indeed, the prospect
of such change has stimulated a great deal of new scientiﬁc research over the
past decade, much of which is elucidating the complex ecological disturbances
that can impact on human well-being and health—as in the following example.
Practice Test C – Reading
Question 1- 9 Around the year 1500, hunting people occupied the entire northern third of North America. They lived well from the animals with whom they shared these lands. Hunters of sea mammals had colonized the Arctic coasts of Canada and Greenland between four and five thousand years before. Land-hunting people had lived throughout much of the northern interior for at least 12,000 years. Northern North America is part of a larger circumpolar ecological domain that continues across the narrow Bering Strait into Siberia and northern Europe.