We analyze the concept of focus in speech and the relationship between focus and speech acts for prosodic generation. We determine how the speaker’s utterances are inﬂuenced by speaker’s intention. The relationship between speech acts and focus information is used to deﬁne which parts of the sentence serve as the focus parts. We propose the Focus to Emphasize Tones (FET) structure to analyze the focus components. We also design the FET grammar to analyze the intonation patterns and produce tone marks as a result of our analysis.
The ﬁrst edition of this book appeared in 1946. Eight translations were made of it, and there were numerous paperback editions. In a paperback of 1961, a new chapter was added on rent control, which had not been speciﬁcally considered in the ﬁrst edition apart from government price-ﬁxing in general. A few statistics and illustrative references were brought up to date. Otherwise no changes were made until now. The chief reason was that they were not thought necessary.
With globalisation and knowledge-based production, firms may cooperate on a global scale, outsource
parts of their administrative or productive units and negate location altogether. The extremely low transaction
costs of data, information and knowledge seem to invalidate the theory of agglomeration and the spatial clustering
of firms, going back to the classical work by Alfred Weber (1868-1958) and Alfred Marshall (1842-1924), who
emphasized the microeconomic benefits of industrial collocation.
The book "Developments in Electrochemistry" contains five feature articles in recent advanced electrochemistry. These selected feature articles emphasize physical phenomena rather than mathematical formalisms of electrochemistry.
We provide a logical deﬁnition of Minimalist grammars, that are Stabler’s formalization of Chomsky’s minimalist program. Our logical deﬁnition leads to a neat relation to categorial grammar, (yielding a treatment of Montague semantics), a parsing-asdeduction in a resource sensitive logic, and a learning algorithm from structured data (based on a typing-algorithm and type-uniﬁcation). Here we emphasize the connection to Montague semantics which can be viewed as a formal computation of the logical form. ...
In Vietnam nowadays, the Vietnam National University, Hanoi in particular, a new standard for English proficiency is set; that is the required overall score of 5.0 on the IELTS or equivalent. Thus, many universities emphasize the development of IELTS skills. While efforts have been made to teach the four macro skills of writing, reading, listening in many language colleges, far less attention is paid to teach necessary techniques to develop good IELTS speaking skill.
This, the Twenty-Seventh Yearbook, and its companion volume, the Twenty-Eighth Yearbook, have been long in the making. Into these two books have gone the combined contributions, suggestions, and criticisms of innumerable individuals, committees, and subcommittees.
The academically talented student in mathematics has always been with us, and most teachers have always attempted to provide for his special needs in one way or another. The principal purpose of this year-book is to give teachers one more resource in order to provide for the talented more efficiently and more quickly.
In this paper, we present a novel global reordering model that can be incorporated into standard phrase-based statistical machine translation. Unlike previous local reordering models that emphasize the reordering of adjacent phrase pairs (Tillmann and Zhang, 2005), our model explicitly models the reordering of long distances by directly estimating the parameters from the phrase alignments of bilingual training sentences.
While it is has often been observed that the product of translation is somehow different than non-translated text, scholars have emphasized two distinct bases for such differences. Some have noted interference from the source language spilling over into translation in a source-language-specific way, while others have noted general effects of the process of translation that are independent of source language.
The paper describes a novel computational tool for multiple concept learning. Unlike previous approaches, whose major goal is prediction on unseen instances rather than the legibility of the output, our MPD (Maximally Parsimonious Discrimination) program emphasizes the conciseness and intelligibility of the resultant class descriptions, using three intuitive simplicity criteria to this end. We illustrate MPD with applications in componential analysis (in lexicology and phonology), language typology, and speech pathology. ...
The achievements made in linguistic sciences during the past two decades manifested in the latest approaches of Transformational Generative linguistics, Systemic - Functional linguistics, and Cognitive linguistics in particular, are really promising the world over and in Vietnam as well. The article makes a review of thee specifically emphasizing the study of compositionality in terms of semantic structures of English and Vietnamese, taking into consideration the universalities and pecularities of these two particular languages. ...
The amount of unlabeled linguistic data available to us is much larger and growing much faster than the amount of labeled data. Semi-supervised learning algorithms combine unlabeled data with a small labeled training set to train better models. This tutorial emphasizes practical applications of semisupervised learning; we treat semi-supervised learning methods as tools for building effective models from limited training data. An attendee will leave our tutorial with 1.
By strictest interpretation, theories of both centering and intonational meaning fail to predict the existence of pitch accented pronominals. Yet they occur felicitously in spoken discourse. To explain this, I emphasize the dual functions served by pitch accents, as markers of both propositional (semantic/pragmatic) and attentional salience.
This paper raises concerns that natural language front ends for computer systems can limit a researcher's scope of thinking, yield inappropriately complex systems, and exaggerate public fear of computers. Alternative modes of computer use are suggested and the role of psychologically oriented controlled experimentation is emphasized. Research methods and recent experimental results are briefly reviewed.
A n a l y s t s grammar o f Japanese tn the Mu-proJect ts p r e s e n t e d , It is emphasized t h a t r u l e s expressing constraints on stngle linguistic structures and r u l e s for selecting the most p r e f e r a b l e readtngs are c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t In n a t u r e , and t h a t...
In this paper we examine the pragmatic knowledge an utterance-planning system must have in order to produce certain kinds of definite and indefinite noun phrases. An utterance.planning system, like other planning systems, plans actions to satisfy an agent's goals, but allows some of the actions to consist of the utterance of sentences. This approach to language generation emphasizes the view of language as action, and hence assigns a critical role to pragmatics.
A word-based morphological analyzer and a dictionary for recognizing inflected forms of French words have been built by adapting the UDICI" system. We describe the adaptations, emphasizing mechanisms developed to handle French verbs. This work lays the groundwork for doing French derivational morphology and morphology for other languages.
Ambiguous keyboards provide efficient typing with low motor demands. In our project l concerning the development of a communication aid, we emphasize adaptation with respect to the sensory input. At the same time, we wish to impose individualized language models on the text determination process. UKO–II is an open architecture based on the Emacs text editor with a server/client interface for adaptive language models. Not only the group of motor impaired people but also users of watch–sized devices can profit from this ambiguous typing.
This paper presents a conditional random ﬁeld-based approach for identifying speaker-produced disﬂuencies (i.e. if and where they occur) in spontaneous speech transcripts. We emphasize false start regions, which are often missed in current disﬂuency identiﬁcation approaches as they lack lexical or structural similarity to the speech immediately following. We ﬁnd that combining lexical, syntactic, and language model-related features with the output of a state-of-the-art disﬂuency identiﬁcation system improves overall word-level identiﬁcation of these and other errors. ...
This study presents an original and penetrating analysis of the complex problems surrounding the automatic generaton of natural language text. Laurence Danlos provides a valuable critical review of current research in this important and increasingly active field, and goes on to describe a new theoretical model that is thoroughly grounded in linguistic principles.