Assessing dependability

Xem 1-20 trên 106 kết quả Assessing dependability
  • Water quality is one of the key factors affecting the environmental health of the Mekong river system. As the livelihoods of most of the 60 million people who live in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) wholly or partly depend on aquatic resources, the environmental health of the river is a major concern to the governments of the countries in the basin. In 1985, the Mekong River Commission (MRC) established the Water Quality Monitoring Network (WQMN) to provide an ongoing record of the water quality of the river, its major tributaries, and the Mekong Delta.

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  • Environmental considerations were largely ignored for almost 200 years in the development of the United States. Only in the last third of the twentieth century did environmental factors begin to play a significant role in the speed and direction of our national progress. These factors have developed in us a new concern and recognition of the dependence that we, as human beings, have on the long-term viability of the envi- ronment for sustaining life.

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  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is an important component of GIS applications in many socio-economic areas. Especially, DEM has a very important role in monitoring and managing natural resources, preventing natural hazards, and supporting spatial decision making. Usually, DEM is built by interpolation from a limited set of sample points. Thus, the accuracy of the DEM is depended on the used interpolation method.

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  • Water For adults, 1.0–1.5 mL water per kcal of energy expenditure is sufficient under usual conditions to allow for normal variations in physical activity, sweating, and solute load of the diet. Water losses include 50–100 mL/d in the feces, 500–1000 mL/d by evaporation or exhalation, and, depending on the renal solute load, ≥1000 mL/d in the urine. If external losses increase, intakes must increase accordingly to avoid underhydration. Fever increases water losses by approximately 200 mL/d per °C; diarrheal losses vary but may be as great as 5 L/d with severe diarrhea.

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  • The gene encoding the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) has been reported to associate with a range of substance dependence and HRH2 is the gene coding histamine H2 receptor, the site of action for various compounds, e.g. amitriptiline and mianserin, used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Both OPRM1and HRH2 genes contain some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including +118A/G in OPRM1 and +398T/C in HRH2, which were reported to change in protein sequences and result in affecting the therapeutic response. ...

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  • Traditional Active Learning (AL) techniques assume that the annotation of each datum costs the same. This is not the case when annotating sequences; some sequences will take longer than others. We show that the AL technique which performs best depends on how cost is measured. Applying an hourly cost model based on the results of an annotation user study, we approximate the amount of time necessary to annotate a given sentence. This model allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of AL sampling methods in terms of time spent in annotation. ...

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  • In this work we address the task of computerassisted assessment of short student answers. We combine several graph alignment features with lexical semantic similarity measures using machine learning techniques and show that the student answers can be more accurately graded than if the semantic measures were used in isolation. We also present a first attempt to align the dependency graphs of the student and the instructor answers in order to make use of a structural component in the automatic grading of student answers. ...

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  • This paper assesses two new approaches to deterministic parsing with respect to the analysis of unbounded dependencies (UDs). UDs in English are highly locally (and often globally) ambiguous. Several researchers have argued that the difficulty of UDs undermines the programme of deterministic parsing. However, their conclusion is based on critiques of various versions of the Marcus parser which represents only one of many possible approaches to deterministic parsing.

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  • Research objectives: The enlargement of right ventricle results in dilation of tricuspid valve annulus with the presence of the cleft between the anterior leaflet and septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve; according to several authors, it is also called the cleft of septal tricuspid leaflet. Depending on the magnitude, the cleft may cause tricuspid valve regurgitation more or less.

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  • “Essentially, all life depends upon the soil. There can be no life without soil and no soil without life; they have evolved together.” - Charles E. Kellogg, USDA Yearbook of Agricul‐ ture, 1938. Natural processes and human activities alter the properties and quality of soils over time. The assessment of soil quality entails the evaluation of the capability of a soil to perform its functions not only in present scenarios but also how those functions can be preserved for future land...

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  • The same amount of water has been present on our planet for about 4 billion years, since shortly after the Earth was formed. Since then it has cycled through evaporation, condensation, precipitation and surface runoff multiple times. Water scarcity as an abiotic factor ranging from moderate to severe stress levels, accompanied by loss of moisture in the soil, is extremely hard for most organisms to cope with, particularly terrestrial plants and their food-chain dependents.

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  • Chambers (1995) described the eight diminution of deprivation among the elderly as poverty, social inferiority, social isolation, physical weakness, vulnerability, seasonality, powerlessness and humiliation of the aged. The poverty is sought to be a major risk of ageing in developing countries (Sen K1994) and study by world bank reveals that in the most of developing countries the older people and dependent are poor and vulnerable (world Bank 1994). The linkage between ageing and poverty and deprivation can have three channels of relations.

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  • Edible oils are mainly vegetable oils which have been subjected to several processes to removed undesirable constituents. In order to make them suitable for human consumption, most edible oils are subjected to refining processes, such as neutralization, bleaching and deodorization. Among edible oils, only virgin olive oil (a natural juice obtained by olive pressing), can be consumed without refining. Edible oils are characterized by a wide range of physical and chemical prop-erties, since their composition depend on the type of oil (Rossell1991).

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  • The amount of capitalization required by a bad bank is essentially determined by two factors: operating costs and acquisition costs. When a low price is paid for the acquired troubled assets, this not only minimizes the risk of future losses but also keeps the initial capital requirements of the bad bank low. The source of financing determines whether the government or private sector provides the required start-up funding. The need for liquid funds depends on how the banks being freed of their troubled assets will be “paid.

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  • At this point in our industry’s evolution, it’s important to have government involvement. Incumbent technologies, such as internal combustion engines for transportation and the electrical power grid, have a huge head start and, in many cases, the rules of the game are written to support their continuation. Our society is comfortable with these technologies and has depended on them for many generations. Because we are not yet producing products at high volume, we are often faced with an initial cost disadvantage compared to traditional, less sustainable power generation methods.

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  • Social determinants of health have a strong influence on a wide diversity of health endpoints. The same is valid for the field of environmental health, as the exposure to environmental risk factors is also unequally distributed, and this unequal distribution is often related to social characteristics such as income, social status, employment and education, but also non-economic aspects such as gender, age or ethnicity. However, depending on the environmental risk and the “risk group” considered, the magnitude of inequality varies largely.

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  • Private health insurance has offered a primary source of coverage for population groups ineligible to public programmes, and contributed to provide insurance protection against other public system coverage gaps. It has helped to inject resources into health systems, enabling an expansion in capacity and services. It also enhanced access to timely care in some systems experiencing prolonged public sector waiting times.

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  • The chemical properties of organics of health concern – hydrophobic and not water soluble - results in a low bioavailability to plants. Plant growth is dependent on the water solubility of nutrients and minerals and water is the transporting vector. Organics with a low water solubility will therefore not be taken up by plants. The presence of organic environmental pollutants, like dioxins and PCBs in agricultural crops is more the result of atmospheric deposition than direct absorption from contaminated soil.

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  • In addition to this, health measures typically used in empirical studies may be affected by endogenous reporting behaviour. The outcome of a direct question to an individual’s health status may depend on the labour market status of the respondent. There may be economic motives or it may be the case that individual’s are inclined to give their answer conform to social norms. Reporting health as a major determinant for inactivity is socially more accepted, and eligibility conditions for some Social Security Benefits, notably Disability Insurance ...

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  • This is a frightening development. There are traces within you – or, depending on your circumstances and exposures, more than traces – of several hundred man-made chemicals. Many are harmless (or at least are so far thought to be). Others, however, may cause cancer and damage the nervous systems, reproductive systems, immune systems, or livers of animals. Mounting scientific evidence is confirming long-term suspicions that they do the same to human beings.

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