Assessing solar

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  • With a global average irradiance of 342 W/m2, the Sun is by far the largest source of energy for planet Earth. In comparison, the internal energy produced by Earth itself is only about 0.087 W/m2 (Pollack et al., 1993), which in turn is 3.5 times larger than the 0.025 W/m2 of heat produced by the burning of fossil fuels. About 31% (31 units) of the solar energy which arrives at the top of the atmosphere is reflected back to space by scattering from clouds, aerosols, and the Earth’s surface. Almost 20 units of solar radiation are absorbed in the atmosphere....

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  • Before this test, box fermentation, different sizes and solar dryers built in Can Tho University. Fermentation, as described in materials and methods, was conducted by testing and dryer weather conditions common in Can Tho. The main purpose of testing is to acquaint employees with CTU working methods in the implementation of the fermentation and drying tests as well as dried beans and analysis should be noted whether the fermentation parameters were comparable to those encountered in other countries....

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  • Generating electricity from a heat source using no moving mechanical parts is the ultimate goal of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s thermionics program. However, developing thermionic energy conversion devices has proven difficult, although much progress has been made. In spite of initial success during the late 1960s and intermittent funding since that time, for a variety of reasons no thermionic system has yet been developed in the United States that can be used today on Earth or in space.

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  • In 10 tests done on men, some of the fermentation parameters vary. These include: shell stored over fresh fruit, spread the beans before fermentation, soaking beans after fermentation and the length of fermentation time. In Dak Lak province, because lower ambient temperature, a "hot" fermentation procedure was trialed in an effort to bring the air temperature to those encountered in the Mekong region. These tests are usually carried out in parallel with the performance testing of solar dryers. A summary of the performance of solar dryers of Can Tho and Dak Lak also included....

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  • The authors wish to thank AusAID and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam project approval and funding from AusAID. Also like to thank the staff of the Can Tho University, University of Agriculture and Forestry and Agriculture Highland Academy of Sciences has contributed time and labor to operate the project.

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  • The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics is the product of an 18-month effort that began in December 2000, when the National Research Council (NRC) approved a study to assess the current status and future directions of U.S. ground- and space-based programs in solar and space physics research. The NRC’s Space Studies Board and its Committee on Solar and Space Physics organized the study, which was carried out by five ad hoc study panels and the 15-member Solar and Space Physics Survey Committee, chaired by Louis J.

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  • Transparency, predictability and longevity of government programmes are necessary if investors are to initiate a project in green technologies. For instance, the degree of high uncertainty in American Production Tax Credits (PTC) was a contributing factor to investor exit from the wind power sector, in particular - illustrating the importance for governments of ensuring that programmes are not subject to excessive policy uncertainty (see Figure 2). Retroactive policy changes regarding solar power projects in Spain have also been concerning investors.

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  • NASA’s exploration of planets and satellites over the past 50 years has led to the discovery of water ice throughout the solar system and prospects for large liquid water reservoirs beneath the frozen shells of icy bodies in the outer solar system. These putative subsurface oceans could provide an environment for prebiotic chemistry or a habitat for indigenous life.

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  • ATP is Denmark‟s largest pension fund with total assets of more than EUR 66 billion. As of 31 December 2009 ATP‟s infrastructure investments equated to 1.8% of the total portfolio. With just below 3% committed. ATP does not have a target for its infrastructure investments but has an overall target of 25- 30% of its risk budget to inflation class. ATP Pension Fund has invested in renewable energy infrastructure and technology, such as solar wind and hydro, as well as emerging technologies, such as biofuels and biomass for a long time.

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  • This book includes solar energy, wind energy, hybrid systems, biofuels, energy management and efficiency, optimization of renewable energy systems and much more. Subsequently, the book presents the physical and technical principles of promising ways of utilizing renewable energies. The authors provide the important data and parameter sets for the major possibilities of renewable energies utilization which allow an economic and environmental assessment.

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  • This report originated in 1999 as a result of discussions between the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) and officials within NASA’s Office of Space Science Sun- Earth Connections program. As noted in the statement of task (Appendix A), the objective of the study was to provide a scientific assessment and strategy for the study of magnetized plasmas in the solar system. By emphasizing the connections between locally occurring (solar system) structures and processes and their astrophysical counterparts, the study would contribute to a unified view of cosmic plasma behavior.

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  • In 2020, areas of particular importance for technology trends will include biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials technology, and information technology. The authors of this report assessed a sample of 29 countries across the spectrum of scientific advancement (low to high) with respect to their ability to acquire and implement 16 key technology applications (e.g., cheap solar energy, rural wireless communications, genetically modified crops). The study

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