Since its first description by Steptoe and Edward, IVF gained popularity among both
doctors and patients. There is many studies on assisted reproduction and they cover
most of the related technical, laboratory as well as clinical aspects. To write a book on
assisted reproduction nowadays seems very difficult due to a wide plethora of related
papers and well-illustrated books. This small-sized book aims at refinement of some
already known points of practical importance in infertility management particularly
The American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) convened a meeting of
professionals, patient advocates, government representatives and legal experts in
December 2009 to examine the oversight of assisted reproductive technology
(ART). ART is one of several therapies used by specialists to treat the disease of
infertility. The most widely used ART procedure is in vitro fertilization.
As with all medical practice, safety in reproductive medicine is assured by a
combination of state and federal government regulation.
Today, approximately one in every hundred babies born in the US is
conceived using ART. Growth in the use and scientific refinement of ART is
carefully monitored by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine
(ASRM) and its affiliate, the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology
(SART), whose memberships consist of specialists in this field of medicine.
In December 2009, ASRM convened a meeting of professionals, patient
advocates, congressional and federal agency representatives, legal experts,
and consumers to examine the oversight of ART.
The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) is an affiliate of
ASRM. Its membership includes more than 90% of American fertility clinics.
SART has strict membership requirements. As a condition of membership,
clinics must report their outcomes to the CDC as well as to SART, have
accredited embryology laboratories, adhere to the Ethics and Practice
Committee guidelines of ASRM, and have appropriately trained staff. Failure
to adhere to these criteria can result in revocation of membership.
ASRM and the College of American Pathologists administer a reproductive
laboratory accreditation program for embryology labs to assure that they conform
to high national standards of quality. ASRM also produces ethics and practice
guidelines. Its affiliate, the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology
(SART), strictly monitors member clinics for adherence to ASRM guidelines,
accreditation of their embryology labs, qualification of their staff, and submission
of data to the CDC.
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have enabled millions of people in the world to have
biological children who otherwise would not have been able to do so. According to the European
Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology, more than three million babies have been
born using ART worldwide in the last 30 years, enabling infertile women and men; single
women and men; and lesbian, gay, and transgender couples to form genetically-related families.
These new technologies have transformed the way we view reproduction.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Textbook of clinical embryology" presents the following contents: Treatment of male and female infertility, social aspects of using reproductive technology, Assisted peproductive technology (ART), ART - skills, techniques and present status,...
Các kỹ thuật hỗ trợ sinh sản (Assisted Reproductive Technologies) là những kỹ thuật Y Sinh học được áp dụng để điều trị vô sinh. Từ khi phương pháp Thụ tinh trong ống nghiệm (IVF) thành công năm 1978 ở Anh, khái niệm các kỹ thuật hỗ trợ sinh sản hình thành và phát triển rất mạnh trên toàn thế giới. Ở các nước phát triển, hiện có khoảng 1-5% số em bé sinh ra hiện nay là từ các kỹ thuật hỗ trợ sinh sản (không kể thụ tinh nhân tạo)....
Presence of epigenetic marks enables cells with the same genotype have potential to
display different phenotypes and differentiate into many cell-types with different
functions, and responses to environmental and intercellular signaling. For example,
DNA methylation is essential for the process of imprinting. Imprinted genes are
expressed from only one parental allele. This mono-allelic gene expression is directed
by epigenetic marks established in the mammalian germ line and a single mutation,
either genetic or epigenetic, can cause disease.
Rate review grants and standards: In August 2010, 45 States and the District of Columbia
each received $1 million grants to develop or make improvements to their existing rate
review and approval practices, strengthening their processes and oversight capacities. States
have already used these funds to hire staff, increase data reporting, and enhance their
information technology. On December 21, 2010, HHS posted a proposed regulation
regarding standards for rate review.
Ooplasmic transfer involves egg retrieval from the woman undergoing IVF and another woman
donating ooplasm (the cytoplasm of an egg cell: the material outside the nucleus). The egg is
then fertilized with sperm and implanted into the woman intending to become pregnant. The
resulting child has DNA from both women because of the mitochondrial DNA present in the
ooplasm of the donor, as well as DNA from the sperm provider (partner or donor), and therefore
has three genetic parents. It had been used for women whose infertility seemed to stem from the
ooplasm in their eggs.
Surrogacy is an agreement in which a woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child for
someone else. Surrogacy can be paid or unpaid, and often involves a legal contract in which the
surrogate gives up parental rights to the child she births. If the surrogate’s own eggs are used
through alternative insemination or IVF, she is known as the “genetic surrogate.” If embryos are
created using another woman’s eggs and implanted in the surrogate, she is known as the
“gestational surrogate” and has no genetic tie to the child. Hiring a surrogate in the US can...
Naturally, during the years I’m considering,American ﬁlms have changed
enormously.They have become sexier,more profane, and more violent; fart
jokes and kung fu are everywhere. The industry has metamorphosed into
a corporate behemoth, while new technologies have transformed produc-
tion and exhibition. And, to come to my central concern, over the same
decades some novel strategies of plot and style have risen to prominence.
Behind these strategies, however, stand principles that are ﬁrmly rooted in
the history of studio moviemaking.
In 1990, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was introduced as an experimental procedure to genetically screen human embryos during an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle (1,2). More than a decade later, PGD has become an established clinical procedure in assisted reproductive technologies with over 6500 PGD cycles performed worldwide, resulting in the birth of well over 1000 healthy babies and a pregnancy rate per transfer of approximately 24% (3).
In this chapter, I will provide insights into the following areas of in vitro fertilization outcome. First, why we monitor in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. Second, why monitoring IVF outcome is not well done. Third, a brief overview of the known IVF literature. Fourth, how to do monitoring in an ideal world, and what outstanding questions have not been addressed which are of concern to families, fertility practitioners, the broader scientiﬁc community, and general public.
The 2005 Declaration discussed above and the Universal
Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, 1997
are both resolutions passed in the General Assembly. They
have no immediate binding effect. They play a signiﬁ cant
role in the formation of customary international law. There
are many different forms of law making in international
law and although an international convention or a
treaty is a source of binding rules, the importance of
other methods of formation of international law cannot
Imaging has become such an integral part of clinical care in the assisted reproductive technologies that it is difﬁcult to imagine how in vitro fertilization (IVF) was done before we had the ability to visualize the ovaries and uterus easily.
Age is an important demographic variable and the primary basis of demographic classification in vital
statistics. Figure 2.1 shows the distribution of the household population by five-year age groups, from
data collected in the 1996 NFHS, 2001 NDHS and 2006 NDHS. Children under 15 years of age
account for nearly half of the total population. A comparison of the NDHS data over the last ten years
shows little change in the age structure of the population. However, there is a slight reduction in case
of children less than 5 years in 2006 (from 16 percent in 1996 to 13...
Micromanipulation involves a well-integrated set of technologies in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Its applications are diagnostic as well as therapeutic, and it is practiced in mature gametes and all stages of preimplantation embryos.