Xem 1-20 trên 190 kết quả Associated disorders
  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Altered postural sway in patients suffering from non-specific neck pain and whiplash associated disorder - A systematic review of the literature...

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  • Obesity and its associated disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, have now reached epidemic proportions in the Western world, resulting in dramatic increases in healthcare costs. Understanding the pro-cesses and metabolic perturbations that contribute to the expansion of adi-pose depots accompanying obesity is central to the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies.

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  • cilia are involved in diverse cellular functions, such as patterning of left-right asymmetry (nodal cilia), limb development, bone morphogenesis, and neurosensory functions (mechanosensation, olfaction, and photoreception). Cilia are also implicated in several developmental cascades, such as Wnt signaling, sonic hedgehog signaling, and platelet derived growth factor receptor signaling pathways.

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  • The cause of macroglobulinemia is unknown. The disease is similar to myeloma in being slightly more common in men and occurring with increased incidence with age (median 64 years). There have been reports that the IgM in some patients with macroglobulinemia may have specificity for myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a protein that has been associated with demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system and may be lost earlier and to a greater extent than the better known myelin basic protein in patients with multiple sclerosis.

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  • Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). A. An example of ACD in its acute phase, with sharply demarcated, weeping, eczematous plaques in a perioral distribution. B. ACD in its chronic phase demonstrating an erythematous, lichenified, weeping plaque on skin chronically exposed to nickel in a metal snap. (B, Courtesy of Robert Swerlick, MD; with permission.) As in other branches of medicine, a complete history should be obtained to emphasize the following features: 1. Evolution of lesions a. Site of onset b. Manner in which the eruption progressed or spread c. Duration d.

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  • Episcleritis This is an inflammation of the episclera, a thin layer of connective tissue between the conjunctiva and sclera. Episcleritis resembles conjunctivitis but is a more localized process and discharge is absent. Most cases of episcleritis are idiopathic, but some occur in the setting of an autoimmune disease. Scleritis refers to a deeper, more severe inflammatory process, frequently associated with a connective tissue disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, Wegener's granulomatosis, or relapsing polychondritis.

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  • Table 52-2 Description of Secondary Skin Lesions Lichenification: A distinctive thickening of the skin that is characterized by accentuated skin-fold markings. Scale: Excessive accumulation of stratum corneum. Crust: Dried exudate of body fluids that may be either yellow (i.e., serous crust) or red (i.e., hemorrhagic crust). Erosion: Loss of epidermis without an associated loss of dermis. Ulcer: Loss of epidermis and at least a portion of the underlying dermis. Excoriation: Linear, angular erosions that may be covered by crust and are caused by scratching.

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  • Dermatitis herpetiformis. This disorder typically displays pruritic, grouped papulovesicles on elbows, knees, buttocks, and posterior scalp. Vesicles are often excoriated due to associated pruritus. The shape of lesions is also an important feature. Flat, round, erythematous papules and plaques are common in many cutaneous diseases. However, targetshaped lesions that consist in part of erythematous plaques are specific for erythema multiforme (Fig. 52-9). In the same way, the arrangement of individual lesions is important.

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  • Representative patterns of serum electrophoresis. The upper panel illustrates the normal pattern of serum protein on electrophoresis. Since there are many different immunoglobulins in the serum, their differing mobilities in an electric field produce a broad peak. In conditions associated with increases in polyclonal immunoglobulin, the broad peak is more prominent (middle panel). In monoclonal gammopathies, the predominance of a product of a single cell produces a "church spire" sharp peak, usually in the γ globulin region (bottom panel).

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  • The contribution of genetics to presbycusis (see below) is also becoming better understood. In addition to GJB2, several other nonsyndromic genes are associated with hearing loss that progresses with age. Sensitivity to aminoglycoside ototoxicity can be maternally transmitted through a mitochondrial mutation. Susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss may also be genetically determined. There are 400 syndromic forms of hearing loss.

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  • Presbycusis (age-associated hearing loss) is the most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults. In the early stages, it is characterized by symmetric, gentle to sharply sloping high-frequency hearing loss. With progression, the hearing loss involves all frequencies. More importantly, the hearing impairment is associated with significant loss in clarity. There is a loss of discrimination for phonemes, recruitment (abnormal growth of loudness), and particular difficulty in understanding speech in noisy environments.

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  • Disorders of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System Many disorders of neutrophils extend to mononuclear phagocytes. Thus, drugs that suppress neutrophil production in the bone marrow can cause monocytopenia. Transient monocytopenia occurs after stress or glucocorticoid administration. Monocytosis is associated with tuberculosis, brucellosis, subacute bacterial endocarditis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, malaria, and visceral leishmaniasis (kala azar).

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  • Eosinophilia Eosinophilia is the presence of 500 eosinophils per µL of blood and is common in many settings besides parasite infection. Significant tissue eosinophilia can occur without an elevated blood count. A common cause of eosinophilia is allergic reaction to drugs (iodides, aspirin, sulfonamides, nitrofurantoin, penicillins, and cephalosporins). Allergies such as hay fever, asthma, eczema, serum sickness, allergic vasculitis, and pemphigus are associated with eosinophilia. Eosinophilia also occurs in collagen vascular diseases (e.g.

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  • Maternal Age and Trisomy The association between increasing maternal age and trisomy is the most important etiologic factor in congenital chromosomal disorders. Among women under the age of 25, ~2% of all clinically recognized pregnancies are trisomic; by the age of 36, however, this figure increases to 10% and by the age of 42, to 33% (Fig. 63-5). This association between maternal age and trisomy is exerted without respect to race, geography, or socioeconomic factors and likely affects segregation of all chromosomes.

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  • Not surprisingly, perhaps, the trend toward a predominantly female profession is not restricted to the UK. According to statistics from the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), the number of female veterinarians in the US more than doubled between 1991 and 2002 (Zhao, 2002). Whereas only 5% of applications to US vet schools were from females in the late 1960s, by the end of the 1990s, over seventy percent of applications were from young women.

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  • Marfan Syndrome (See also Chap. 357) This is an autosomal dominant disease, associated with a high risk of maternal morbidity. Approximately 15% of pregnant women with Marfan syndrome develop a major cardiovascular manifestation during pregnancy, with almost all women surviving.

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  • Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy: Treatment Pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus is associated with higher maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality rates. Preconception counseling and treatment are important for the diabetic patient contemplating pregnancy and can reduce the risk of congenital malformations and improve pregnancy outcome. Folate supplementation reduces the incidence of fetal neural tube defects, which occur with greater frequency in fetuses of diabetic mothers.

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  • Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Up to 90% of pregnant women experience nausea and vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy. Occasionally, hyperemesis gravidarum requires hospitalization to prevent dehydration, and sometimes parenteral nutrition is required. Crohn's disease may be associated with exacerbations in the second and third trimesters. Ulcerative colitis is associated with disease exacerbations in the first trimester and during the early postpartum period.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 27. Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders Aphasia, Memory Loss, and Other Focal Cerebral Disorders: Introduction The cerebral cortex of the human brain contains ~20 billion neurons spread over an area of 2.5 m2. The primary sensory areas provide an obligatory portal for the entry of sensory information into cortical circuitry, whereas the primary motor areas provide final common pathways for coordinating complex motor acts. The primary sensory and motor areas constitute 10% of the cerebral cortex.

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  • Language allows the communication and elaboration of thoughts and experiences by linking them to arbitrary symbols known as words. The neural substrate of language is composed of a distributed network centered in the perisylvian region of the left hemisphere. The posterior pole of this network is located at the temporoparietal junction and includes a region known as Wernicke's area. An essential function of Wernicke's area is to transform sensory inputs into their lexical representations so that these can establish the distributed associations that give the word its meaning. ...

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