Assumptions of science

This Handbook has been designed to assist students as well as professionals in the behavioral and biological sciences to understand and apply the principles and methods of experimental research. The Handbook is comprehensive but is written in a concise, outline format. This allows a considerable amount of material to be presented in an explicit, compact form that facilitates the perception and understanding of the hierarchical and parallel relationships among concepts. As a result, learning, retrieving, and applying the information should be greatly enhanced....
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In this chapter you will: See how economists apply the methods of science, consider how assumptions and models can shed light on the world, learn two simple models  the circular flow and the production possibilities frontier, distinguish between microeconomics and macroeconomics,...
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Given a compact four dimensional manifold, we prove existence of conformal metrics with constant Qcurvature under generic assumptions. The problem amounts to solving a fourthorder nonlinear elliptic equation with variational structure. Since the corresponding Euler functional is in general unbounded from above and from below, we employ topological methods and minmax schemes, jointly with the compactness result of [35]. 1.
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For the complex parabolic GinzburgLandau equation, we prove that, asymptotically, vorticity evolves according to motion by mean curvature in Brakke’s weak formulation. The only assumption is a natural energy bound on the initial data. In some cases, we also prove convergence to enhanced motion in the sense of Ilmanen. Introduction In this paper we study the asymptotic analysis, as the parameter ε goes to zero, of the complexvalued parabolic GinzburgLandau equation for functions uε :
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In this paper, we solve the following extension problem. Problem 1. Suppose we are given a function f : E → R, where E is a given subset of Rn. How can we decide whether f extends to a Cm−1,1 function F on Rn ? Here, m ≥ 1 is given. As usual, Cm−1,1 denotes the space of functions whose (m − 1)rst derivatives are Lipschitz 1. We make no assumption on the set E or the function f. This problem, with Cm in place of Cm−1,1, goes back to Whitney [15], [16], [17]. To answer it, we prove the following sharp form of the Whitney extension theorem....
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Discussing the implications of a paradigm change in science, Allen et al. (2001) said: “A paradigm change modifies protocols, vocabulary or tacit agreements not to ask certain questions” (p. 480). If we agree with this brilliant definition, and therefore if we accept that a scientific paradigm is “a tacit agreement not to ask certain questions,” the next step is to find out why certain questions are forbidden.
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Our starting point is the question, “Who invented the environment?” Chapter 1 describes how humans’ awareness of their impacts on the environment developed and when and why the concept of the environment was invented. Chapter 2 provides a first definition of environmental literacy and introduces the value that transdisciplinarity can bring to how humans address environmental issues.
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In September 2003, Lou Carter’s Best Practices Institute performed a research study on trends and practices in leadership development and organization change. BPI asked organizations in a range of industries, sizes, and positions in the business cycle to identify their top methods of achieving strategic change and objectives. The study found that there is a strong demand, in particular, in the following areas of leadership development and organization change (see Table I.1).
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Strategic decisions are rarely straightforward or simple. This is because they involve value judgments that depend to a large degree on people’s attitudes, perceptions and assumptions. This is why so many strategic decisions turn out to be illjudged. The aim of this book is to help those who have to make strategic decisions and to throw light on the decisionmaking process. The first part focuses on the forces shaping major decisions, including ideas, developments and potential pitfalls.
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A number of assumptions have been adopted for the projections presented in the World Economic Outlook.
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This thesis examines how artificial neural networks can benefit a large vocabulary, speaker independent, continuous speech recognition system. Currently, most speech recognition systems are based on hidden Markov models (HMMs), a statistical framework that supports both acoustic and temporal modeling. Despite their stateoftheart performance, HMMs make a number of suboptimal modeling assumptions that limit their potential effectiveness.
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THE UNSCENTED KALMAN FILTER Eric A. Wan and Rudolph van der Merwe Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, Oregon, U.S.A. 7.1 INTRODUCTION In this book, the extended Kalman ﬁlter (EKF) has been used as the standard technique for performing recursive nonlinear estimation. The EKF algorithm, however, provides only an approximation to optimal nonlinear estimation.
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In addition to covering statistical methods, most of the existing books on equating also focus on the practice of equating, the implications of test development and test use for equating practice and policies, and the daily equating challenges that need to be solved. In some sense, the scope of this book is narrower than of other existing books: to view the equating and linking process as a statistical estimation task.
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Most of the literature in forensic mental health assessment is organized around the particular legal issue that is the focus of a given assessment, tool, or research study. This book starts with a different assumption: There are broad principles of forensic assessment that are applicable across different legal issues. If such principles exist, they should be derived from and supported by sources of authority in ethics, law, science, and profes sional practice.
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My primary purpose in writing and revising this book has been to provide an updated introduction to the history of medicine. Although the text began as a ‘‘teaching assistant’’ for my own onesemester survey course, I hope that this new edition will also be of interest to a general audience, and to teachers who are trying to add historical materials to their science courses or science to their history courses.
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Henry Beam Piper (March 23, 1904 – c. November 6, 1964) was an American science fiction author. He wrote many short stories and several novels. He is best known for his extensive TerroHuman Future History series of stories and a shorter series of "Paratime" alternate history tales. He wrote under the name H. Beam Piper. Another source gives his name as "Horace Beam Piper" and a different date of death. His gravestone says "Henry Beam Piper".
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The textbook used by my predecessors assumed the reader had had some experience with electronics. The author went so far as to use screen captures from oscilloscopes and other test equipment to describe circuit properties. I soon found that this was a bad assumption to make when it came to students of computer science.
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Heat transfer is a fundamental part of thermal engineering. It is the science of the rules governing the transfer of heat between systems of different temperatures. In thermodynamics, the heat transferred from one system to its surroundings is assumed as a given process parameter. This assumption does not give any information on how the heat is transferred and which rules determine the quantity of the transferred heat. Heat transfer describes the dependencies of the heat transfer rate from a corresponding temperature difference and other physical conditions....
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Model in general sense is an analogue of the object under consideration, which replaces this object in human cognition. If the replacement action happens consciously, we call it Modelling. Science works by building models. Not cardboard or plasticine models, but models made out of symbols, special terms, theories, axioms, theorems etc. This helps to formulate ideas and identify underlying assumptions in formalized and abstracted form.
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CHAPTER 39 Random Regressors. Until now we always assumed that X was nonrandom, i.e., the hypothetical repetitions of the experiment used the same X matrix. In the nonexperimental sciences, such as economics, this assumption is clearly inappropriate.
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