Astronomy science

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  • The field of astronomy and astrophysics has advanced significantly with the advent of orbiting observatories. The ability to observe unobstructed by Earth’s atmosphere has opened new spectral windows and provided clearer, deeper views of the universe. Working with powerful new ground-based tools, astronomers and astrophysicists have revolutionized our understanding of the universe and the physical laws that govern its existence.

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  • Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth sciences) is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.[1] It is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth.

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  • The Science of Astronomy is sublime and beautiful. Noble, elevating, consoling, divine, it gives us wings, and bears us through Infinitude. In these ethereal regions all is pure, luminous, and splendid. Dreams of the Ideal, even of the Inaccessible, weave their subtle spells upon us. The imagination soars aloft, and aspires to the sources of Eternal Beauty.

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  • Inquiring on the sky (i.e., the Universe) has been present as affair of concern of the human kind since the early days of the first hominids like homo floresiensis and late homo sapiens. Fascination of sky watchers on a starry night, with its planets and the Moon, still today invites the best human minds to struggle for unveiling its secrets. To extending farther out the reach of our eyes, the telescope was introduced to astronomy in 1609 by Galileo Galilei.

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  • The object of this book is to give an account of the science of Astronomy, as it is known at the present day, in a manner acceptable to the general reader. It is too often supposed that it is impossible to acquire any useful knowledge of Astronomy without much laborious study, and without adventuring into quite a new world of thought. The reasoning applied to the study of the celestial orbs is, however, of no different order from that which is employed in the affairs of everyday life.

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  • The Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings is a series of high-level proceedings volumes covering a broad range of subjects in Astrophysics, Astronomy, Cosmology, and Space Science. The contributors are distinguished specialists with international reputations in their fields of expertise. The subjects are placed in the broader context of related disciplines such as Engineering, Computer Science, Environmental Science, and Nuclear and Particle Physics.

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  • Astronomy is certainly the oldest science and that of astronomer probably the oldest profession. This second assertion is notoriously debatable, but one can safely assume that in a primitive civilized society the (remunerated) shaman or priest had to be an astronomer to be credible.

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  • The steps needed to define a successful space science mission are numerous. The science drivers, the unique advantages this mission provides over past missions or earth-based experiments, and the payload that it includes are the key factors to guarantee its success. Finding the required information on such topics is not so straightforward, especially as they are usually outside the scope of undergraduate courses. The 2003 Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics aimed at providing a focused framework that helps fill this need.

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  • Astronomy is the most ancient science humans have practiced on Earth. It is a science of extremes and of large numbers: extremes of time – from the big bang to infinity –, of distances, of temperatures, of density and masses, of magnetic field, etc.

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  • A multitude of measurement units exist within astronomy, some of which are unique to the subject, causing discrepancies that are particularly apparent when astronomers collaborate with other disciplines in science and engineering. The International System of Units (SI) is based on a set of seven fundamental units from which other units may be derived. However, many astronomers are reluctant to drop their old and familiar systems. This handbook demonstrates the ease with which transformations from old units to SI units may be made.

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  • We present the proceedings from the workshop entitled Scientific Detectors for Astronomy 2005, a weeklong meeting held in Taormina, Sicily during 19-25 June 2005. This was the sixth workshop of this series, and the fourth with hardcover proceedings. By all measures, this workshop surpassed the previous meetings. The primary purpose of any technical meeting is the exchange of scientific and engineering information.

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  • The history of science shows many close connections between physics and astronomy. It is well known that a number of physical laws evolved from a base of astronomical observations. For example, Kepler observed and, later Newton derived, the laws of gravitation while studying the motion of planets and their satellites. The existence of thermonuclear energy was solidly established when it explained the energy balance of the Sun and stars.

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  • The Committee on High Energy Density Plasma Physics was established in April 2001 by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Physics and Astronomy to identify scientific opportunities and develop a unifying theme for research on matter under extreme high energy density conditions.

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  • This book deals with topics in atomic and molecular structure and dynamics that are important to astronomy. Indeed, the topics selected are of central interest to the field of astronomy, many having been initiated by the needs of understanding worlds other than ours. Except for some lunar surface material returned by the Apollo missions, and material naturally delivered to us by cosmic rays, comets, and meteors, our only access to the other worlds of our astronomical Universe is through our observations of electromagnetic radiation from them.

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  • Astronomers are the oldest data collectors. The first catalogue of stars is due to Hipparchus, in the second century B.C. Since that time, and more precisely since the end of the last century, there has been an important increase in astronomical data. EHie to the development of space astronomy during recent decades, we have witnessed a veritable inflation. Confronted with this flood of data, astronomers have to change their methodology. It is necessary not only to manage large databases, but also to take into account recent developments in information retrieval....

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  • The development of astronomy worldwide begins at the roots: Already from childhood, humans of all nations and civilizations seem to share an innate fascination with the sky. Yet, people in different regions of the world have vastly different possibilities for pursuing this interest. In wealthy, industrialised societies the way is open to a school or higher education in science, possibly leading to a career in astronomy or basic or applied space science for the benefit of the country as well as the individual.

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  • Discovering what lies behind a hill or beyond a neighborhood can be as simple as taking a short walk. But curiosity and the urge to make new dis- coveries usually require people to undertake journeys much more adven- turesome than a short walk, and scientists oft en study realms far removed from everyday observation—sometimes even beyond the present means of travel or vision.

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  • In Westminster Abbey there repose, almost side by side, by no conscious design yet with deep significance, the mortal remains of Isaac Newton and of Charles Darwin. "'The Origin of Species,'" said Wallace, "will live as long as the 'Principia' of Newton." Near by are the tombs of Sir John Herschel, Lord Kelvin and Sir Charles Lyell; and the medallions in memory of Joule, Darwin, Stokes and Adams have been rearranged so as to admit similar memorials of Lister, Hooker and Alfred Russel Wallace.

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  • The expanding perimeter of human knowledge has brought pioneering scientists in many frontier areas face to face with events that cannot be easily explained in terms of present scientific concepts of reality. Psychic abilities, UFOs, strange energy effects from human-made devices—these are some of the unusual phenomena that have puzzled and intrigued those explorer-scientists. But upon reporting their observations from the borderland territories, the all-too-frequent reaction by other scientists has been to disregard these unusual...

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