Asymptomatic individuals

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  • The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) provides recommendations for evidence-based screening (Table 4-3). In addition to these population-based guidelines, it is reasonable to consider family and social history to identify individuals with special risk (www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm). For example, when there is a significant family history of breast, colon, or prostate cancer, it is prudent to initiate screening about 10 years before the age when the youngest family member developed cancer.

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  • Cancer Screening Screening is a means of detecting disease early in asymptomatic individuals, with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. While screening can potentially save lives and has been shown to do so in cervical, colon, and probably breast cancer, it is also subject to a number of biases that can suggest a benefit when actually there is none. Biases can even mask net harm. Early detection does not in itself confer benefit. To be of value, screening must detect disease earlier, and treatment of earlier disease must yield a better outcome than treatment at the onset of...

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  • Screening The rationale for colorectal cancer screening programs is that earlier detection of localized, superficial cancers in asymptomatic individuals will increase the surgical cure rate. Such screening programs are important for individuals having a family history of the disease in first-degree relatives. The relative risk for developing colorectal cancer increases to 1.75 in such individuals and may be even higher if the relative was afflicted before age 60.

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  • Noninvasive cardiac imaging is an integral part of the practice of current clinical cardiology. During the past three decades a number of distinctly different noninvasive imaging techniques of the heart, such as radionuclide imaging, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and X-ray computed tomography have been developed. Remarkable progress has been made by each of these technologies in terms of technical advances, clinical procedures, and clinical applications/indications.

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  • Noninvasive cardiac imaging is an integral part of the practice of current clinical cardiology. During the past three decades a number of distinctly different noninvasive imaging techniques of the heart, such as radionuclide imaging, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and X-ray computed tomography have been developed. Remarkable progress has been made by each of these technologies in terms of technical advances, clinical procedures, and clinical applications/indications.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Can ultrasonography make identification of asymptomatic hyperuricemic individuals at risk for developing gouty arthritis more crystal clear?

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: CCR3, CCR5, CCR8 and CXCR3 expression in memory T helper cells from allergic rhinitis patients, asymptomatically sensitized and healthy individuals...

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  • Noninvasive Imaging of Myocardial Ischemia provides a comprehensive discussion and review of the noninvasive myocardial imaging techniques that are currently available to detect myocardial ischemia and infarction. Topics covered include echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, and computed tomography.

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  • Molecular analysis is generally more informative if testing is initiated in a symptomatic family member, since the identification of a mutation can direct the testing of other at-risk family members (whether they are symptomatic or not). In the absence of additional familial or environmental risk factors, individuals who test negative for the mutation found in the affected family member can be informed that they are at general population risk for that particular disease. Furthermore, they can be reassured that they are not at risk for passing on the mutation to their children.

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  • Clinical Manifestations Respiratory Diphtheria The clinical diagnosis of diphtheria is based on the constellation of sore throat; adherent tonsillar, pharyngeal, or nasal pseudomembranous lesions; and low-grade fever. In addition, diagnosis requires the isolation of C. diphtheriae or the histopathologic isolation of compatible gram-positive organisms.

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  • Hemoglobin E HbE (i.e., α2β226Glu - Lys) is extremely common in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. The gene has become far more prevalent in the United States as a result of immigration of Asian persons, especially in California, where HbE is the most common variant detected. HbE is mildly unstable but not enough to affect RBC life span significantly. The high frequency of the HbE gene may be a result of the thalassemia phenotype associated with its inheritance. Heterozygotes resemble individuals with mild β-thalassemia trait.

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  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV), which was initially isolated from patients with congenital cytomegalic inclusion disease, is now recognized as an important pathogen in all age groups. In addition to inducing severe birth defects, CMV causes a wide spectrum of disorders in older children and adults, ranging from an asymptomatic, subclinical infection to a mononucleosis syndrome in healthy individuals to disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. Human CMV is one of several related species-specific viruses that cause similar diseases in various animals.

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  • Despite the theoretical advantages of identifying individuals with cognitive impairment, there is no evidence to indicate whether this leads to a net benefit or risk to the individual. Although pharmaceutica agents are able to produce measurable changes in cognitive performance in people with Alzheimer’s disease, none has been shown to result consistently in clinically significant improvement. The high cost of investigation to exclude reversible causes of dementia, and the negative effects of labelling are examples of potential harm.

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  •  Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that has been associated with diverse pathologies of varying severity, such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric carcinoma.1 Although most infected persons remain asymptomatic, 15–20% of H. pyloripositive individuals will develop the associated diseases. This could be dependent on environmental factors, host genetic factors or specific properties of the microorganism.1

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  • Tuberculosis is transmitted from person to person by respiratory droplets. Although some people develop active tuberculosis disease after infection, almost all tuberculosis infections are asymptomatic and remain latent. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) itself progresses to active disease in approximately 5% to 10% of infected persons. The rate of progression is much greater in immunocompromised individuals. The estimated 2 billion people living with LTBI represent a vast reservoir of potential cases of tuberculosis around the world.

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