This chapter examines methods of deriving approximate solutions to problems or of approximating exact solutions, which allow us to develop concise and precise estimates of quantities of interest when analyzing algorithms.
Eight students in this study achieved an increase in their Overall score from Test 1 to Test 2 of one
whole band and a further 14 achieved a half band increase. In other words, just over half of this
sample of 40 students were able to achieve a better result in the IELTS Test when taken again after
two or three years of higher education in Australia. A total of 12 students achieved the same Overall
score in Test 2 as in Test 1, and six students actually regressed, dropping a half band. Of course, this is
not to say...
Histological assessment showed that independently of the etiological factor involved,
changes of the mucosa refer both to the gingival epithelium and the lamina propria (Banita
et al., 2008, 2011). There is now general agreement that all gingival overgrowth lesions
contain fibrotic or expanded connective tissue with various levels of inflammation and an
enlarged gingival epithelium. As soon as plaque accumulates adjacent to the gingival
margin, inflammatory cells infiltrate in the subjacent connective tissue and initiate its
Statistical procedures of estimation and inference are most frequently justified in econometric work on the basis of certain desirable asymptotic properties. One estimation procedure may, for example, be selected over another because it is known to provide consistent and asymptotically efficient parameter estimates
under certain stochastic environments.
Reporting that rare
species are more abundant on larger islands, they make the case for greater
conservation efforts on larger islands. In the next chapter, Hugo Mejía-Madrid
evaluates the roles of heterochrony and ecological fitting in the evolution of helminth
fish parasites. Contrary to expectations, helminth speciation lags substantially behind
that of their hosts, tending to occur in pulses associated with continent jumps among
hosts. Next in this section, Toshiharu Mita et al.
The country case studies make clear that international partners share
some of the blame, particularly because they too often fail to coordinate
programs to help promote more integrated, comprehensive health care
for women. However, it is equally clear that many of the obstacles are
wholly local in nature: National governments and policymakers are
often unable or unwilling to initiate or sustain health care programs and
reforms that would improve women’s access to services and, by extension,
reduce rates of vertical transmission.
The splitting point b must be chosen large enough that the remaining integral over (b, ∞) is small. Successive terms in its asymptotic expansion are found by integrating by parts. The integral over (a, b) can be done using dftint.
Some flow cytometers have the ability to physically separate different sub-populations of
interest (cell sorting) depending on their cytometric characteristics (stream-in-air), thus
permitting the recovery and purification of cell subsets from a mixed population for further
applications (Bergquist et al., 2009; Davey, 2010).
In 2008 food prices surged plunging millions back into hunger
and triggering riots from Egypt to Haiti and Cameroon to Bangladesh.
Whereas fuel prices, which also surged, have fallen
back sharply food prices remain problematic with wheat, corn
and soya still higher than they were 12-18 months ago.
In order to understand the factors underpinning the food
crisis and to assess trends, UNEP commissioned a Rapid
Response team of internal and international experts. Their
conclusions are presented in this report launched during
UNEP’s 25th Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment
Water contamination weakens or destroys natural
ecosystems that support human health, food production,
and biodiversity. Studies have estimated that the value of
ecosystem services is double the gross national product of
the global economy, and the role of freshwater ecosystems
in purifying water and assimilating wastes has been
valued at US$ 400 billion (2008$) (Costanza et al. 1997).
Freshwater ecosystems are among the most degraded on
the planet, and have suffered proportionately greater species
and habitat losses than terrestrial or marine ecosystems
(Revenga et al. 2000).
First, the concentrated
decision rights within the firms allow them to operate in greater secrecy. A politician may
desire more secrecy in order to maintain a reputation of integrity. The firms also prefer
operating in secret in order to discourage entry by competitors. Second, compared to a
hired manager in a widely held firm, a controlling owner is more secure in his position in
the firm and thus has more credibility on which to trade favors with the government.
Let X = G/K be a homogeneous Riemannian manifold where G is the identity component of its isometry group. A C ∞ function F on X is harmonic if it is annihilated by every element of DG (X), the algebra of all G-invariant diﬀerential operators without constant term. One of the most beautiful results in the harmonic analysis of symmetric spaces is the Helgason conjecture, which states that on a Riemannian symmetric space of noncompact type, a function is harmonic if and only if it is the Poisson integral of a hyperfunction over the Furstenberg boundary G/Po where...
The objective of the first part of the questionnaire was to gather information on the relative
importance of different types of forest goods and services in the EU Member States. The respondents
were asked to rank the relative importance of forest goods and services (from 1 – not important; to 5
– very important), according to their own perceptions about the total benefits forest goods and
services provide to the society.
The aim of the second part (Part B) of the questionnaire was to produce an overview of financing
mechanisms used in the EU-27. For this purpose, the respondents...
Most enterprises deal with a single end product, which indicates the high degree of specialisation
of the enterprises in Jepara. The vast majority (95.5%) are enterprises run by a single extended
family, while relatively few involved two (4.3%) or three (0.2%) separate families or lineages. Almost
all enterprises had at least one other regular partner enterprise, even if there were no links in
the ownership of the enterprises.
This paper reviews these issues and discusses policies that can help further develop India’s
debt market. Section II highlights and compares market development and outlook to emerging
East Asian economies. Sections III and IV summarize salient characteristics, reforms and
obstacles. Section V discusses the development and prospects for India’s securitization market.
Section VI looks at the main market participants and the depth of the pool of available investors,
arguably the most significant factor in market development. Section VII tackles policy issues.
This paper is a continuation of Feﬀerman’s program  for studying the geometry and analysis of strictly pseudoconvex domains. The key idea of the program is to consider the Bergman and Szeg¨ kernels of the domains as o analogs of the heat kernel of Riemannian manifolds. In Riemannian (or conformal) geometry, the coeﬃcients of the asymptotic expansion of the heat kernel can be expressed in terms of the curvature of the metric; by integrating the coeﬃcients one obtains index theorems in various settings. ...
The distance measure consists of three dummy variables:7 The first indicates diary weeks
starting on payday, and weeks starting 1 to 7 days after payday. The second indicates
weeks starting 8 to 14 days after payday. Diary weeks beginning at distances 15 to 22 are
omitted from the equation and serve as the reference category. The third dummy indicates
weeks beginning 4 to 1 days before the next payday. These weeks overlap the (imputed)
next payday by at least three days.
Today's absolute imperative is to tackle the economic crisis and put the EU back on the road
to sustainable growth. This is the number one task for this generation of Europeans. It calls
for a Europe able to compete in the global economy, reshaped to seize the opportunities of the
future. It requires the stable macroeconomic environment which true economic and monetary
union can bring. It needs a step change in the economy, to release the many strengths Europe
can bring to bear in tomorrow's economy of high innovation and high skills.