Xem 1-20 trên 91 kết quả Atmosphere water
  • There is an estimated 1.4 billion km3 of water in the world but only approximately three percent (39 million km³) of it is available as fresh water. Moreover, most of this fresh water is found as ice in the arctic regions, deep groundwater or atmospheric water. Since water is the source of life and essential for all life on the planet, the use of this resource is a highly important issue. 'Water management' is the general term used to describe all the activities that manage the optimum use of the world’s water resources....

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  • WATER PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE in the life of the plant. For every gram of organic matter made by the plant, approximately 500 g of water is absorbed by the roots, transported through the plant body and lost to the atmosphere. Even slight imbalances in this flow of water can cause water deficits and severe malfunctioning of many cellular processes. Thus, every plant must delicately balance its uptake and loss of water. This balancing is a serious challenge for land plants. To carry on photosynthesis, they need to draw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but doing so exposes them to...

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  • LIFE IN EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE presents a formidable challenge to land plants. On the one hand, the atmosphere is the source of carbon dioxide, which is needed for photosynthesis. Plants therefore need ready access to the atmosphere. On the other hand, the atmosphere is relatively dry and can dehydrate the plant. To meet the contradictory demands of maximizing carbon dioxide uptake while limiting water loss, plants have evolved adaptations to control water loss from leaves, and to replace the water lost to the atmosphere.

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  • Hydrology is a branch of scientific and engineering discipline that deals with the occurrence, distribution, movement, and properties of the waters of the earth. A knowledge of hydrology is fundamental to water and environmental professionals (engineers, scientists and decision makers) in such tasks as the design and operation of water resources, wastewater treatment, irrigation, flood defence, navigation, pollution control, hydropower, ecosystem modelling, etc.

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  • Before turning to a description of effluent taxes, it is useful to briefly describe the status quo approach to regulation: command-and-control effluent reduction requirements. 2 The centerpiece of U.S. water quality regulation is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program. The NPDES program requires polluters to obtain permits, or licenses, to discharge. These permits specify pollution amounts that can be legally discharged.

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  • In many countries, problems associated with an absence of clear responsibilities, with the overlapping of institutional boundaries, duplication of work and a lack of co- ordination between involved institutions, are common obstacles to effective water pollution control (see Case Studies V, III, XIII, X and IV for South Africa, Philippines, Yemen, Russia and Nigeria). The analysis must include all relevant administrative levels, for example through intensive studies at the central level combined with visits and studies in selected regions at lower administrative levels.

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  • (BQ) Ebook Earth science: Water Cycle and Weather presents about why can’t you drink salt water? How do scientists classify clouds? How do scientists classify clouds? does each tool measure? Water is recycled through the water cycle; cause and Effect what causes a cold front? What effects does a cold front have on weather?.

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  • Recovering useful hydrocarbons from sewage sludge using zirconia-supporting iron oxide catalysts was investigated. Zirconia has activity for decomposing water molecules to generate active oxygen and hydrogen species.

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  • Water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas, the most important gaseous source of infrared opacity in the atmosphere. As the concentrations of other greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, increase because of human activity, it is centrally important to predict howthewater vapor distribution will be affected. To the extent that water vapor concentrations increase in a warmer world, the climatic effects of the other greenhouse gases will be amplified.

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  • The litho-hydrodynamic and environmental conditions in the Vietnamese coastal estuarine basin are significantly affected by the land-ocean-atmosphere interaction processes whish tide has a determining role. Application of the coupled 1D, 2D and 3D modeling system could resolve this complicated problem but it requires other solutions related with the boundary and coupling conditions.

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  • A compilation of the most important aerosol chemical processes involved in known scientific and technological disciplines, Aerosol Chemical Processes in the Environment serves as a handbook for aerosol chemistry. Aerosol science is interdisciplinary, interfacing with many environmental, biological and technological research fields. Aerosols and aerosol research play an important role in both basic and applied scientific and technological fields. Interdisciplinary cooperation is useful and necessary.

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  • In the decade that has passed since the first edition of this book, the global environment has changed rapidly. Even the most steadfast ‘‘deny-ers’’ have come to accept that atmospheric CO2 enrichment and global warming pose serious challenges to life on Earth.

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  • There are two main reasons why the chemical process industry should be motivated to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions: rising concerns in companies, the public and scientifi c community about climate change or global warming, and the increasing fraction of energy in manufacturing costs. ‘ Climate change ’ [1] in this context, means a change of climate, which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods....

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  • The metastable state of liquids which are supercooled has been the subject of interest for over 300 years. Supercooled water and aqueous solutions are found in the atmosphere, in cold-hardy organisms, and in many industrial applications. For example, freeze tolerance and the associated avoidance of supercooling, is the dominant cold-related strategy in Southern Hemisphere insects, being found in 77% of cold hardy insects. In industry, thermodynamic systems such as cool boxes have a significant financial driving force for supercooling to be controlled and this is also covered in this book...

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  • Acknowledgements Governing Water (2004 – 2007) is a project funded by the European Commission. The aim is to raise awareness and promote dialogue on good governance, using water as a discussion issue, within and between communities in Fiji. More than 40 rural and urban communities on Viti Levu and Vanua Levu have participated in the Governing Water project. Through Governing Water, over 300 community facilitators and schoolteachers have been trained.

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  • Evapotranspiration - An Overview contains recent advances in the physics of evaporation and transpiration from a typical experimental site to large scale areas. It incorporates many years of authors experience with the latest research on the methods and the models used worldwide, engaging advanced technology and modern instrumentation. The reader benefits from the in-depth analysis and the diverse sites and settings, where the models, applications and methods are tested.

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  • In 1990, the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) completed the initial phase of what was then the largest environmental research program ever conducted. NAPAP research investigated the causes and effects of, and mitigation strategies for, acidic atmospheric deposition throughout the U.S. This massive environmental research and assessment effort took 10 years to complete, involved hundreds of scientists, engineers, and economists, and cost in excess of $500 million.

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  • Most people are aware of and concerned with the health effects of pesticide residues in the water they drink and the food they eat, but many are surprised to learn that pesticides are commonly found in air and rain. Scientific studies of pesticides in various atmospheric matrices (air, rain, snow, aerosols, and fog) have been ongoing for 40 years. When taken together, these studies, many of which are small and focused, provide a significant contribution to answering the questions when, where, how, and why pesticides are in the atmosphere.

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  • T he Earth has been blessed with an abundant supply of natural resources. Natural resources are those elements that exist on the planet for the use and benefit of all living things. Scientists commonly divide them down into distinct groups for the purposes of studying them. These groups include agricultural resources, plants, animals, energy sources, landscapes, forests, minerals, and water and atmospheric resources.

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  • The object of cultivating the soil is to raise from it a crop of plants. In order to cultivate with economy, we must raise the largest possible quantity with the least expense, and without permanent injury to the soil. Before this can be done we must study the character of plants, and learn their exact composition. They are not created by a mysterious power, they are merely made up of matters already in existence. They take up water containing food and other mat[Pg 12]ters, and discharge from their roots those substances that are not required for their growth. ...

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