A survey conducted several years ago within the local atmospheric science
community had indicated the need for a comprehensive reference book of atmospheric
chemistry and physics. The present compilation of data has been prepared
in an attempt to fi ll this need.
While the subject, as a whole or in parts, has received an adequate treatment in
textbooks, encyclopedias, and in other overviews, these publications do not generally
present numerical data but discuss important observations by way of illustrations.
Weather natural hazards, the environment and climate change are of concern to all of
us. Especially, it is essential to understand how human activities might impact the
nature. Hence, monitoring, research, and forecasting is of the outmost importance.
Furthermore, climate change and pollution of the environment do not obey national
borders; so, international collaboration on these issues is indeed extremely important.
Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth sciences) is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. It is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of chemical
compounds which do not exist in nature but which are manmade.
Commercial mixtures are clear, pale yellow liquids
manufactured by the replacement of hydrogen atoms on the
biphenyl molecule by chlorine. The reaction is controlled
according to the percentage replacement of hydrogen and
results in a product which contain chlorobiphenyls with one
or, more usually, several chlorine atoms attached to each
Earth science is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. It is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth.
I was delighted to respond to an invitation from Ventus Publishing to write a book on
atmospheric pollution. It is a topic well enough served by books in the past, but has become
increasingly important during these early years of the 21st Century. I believe therefore that there
is a place for a review like this one and that notwithstanding the immense activity in the area the
book will have a reasonable shelf life. This is because it continually relates the discussion to the
principles of physics and chemistry, and these do not change....
The atmosphere may be our most precious resource. Accordingly, the balance between its use and protection is a high priority for our civilization. While many of us would consider air pollution to be an issue that the modern world has resolved to a greater extent, it still appears to have considerable influence on the global environment. In many countries with ambitious economic growth targets the acceptable levels of air pollution have been transgressed. Serious respiratory disease related problems have been identified with both indoor and outdoor pollution throughout the world....
In the editors’ preface to the fourth edition it was noted that there was good news and there was bad news. It is the
same for this, the fifth edition. One suspects that this will always be the case.
The 2004 Nobel Prize for Peace has been awarded to Professor Dr. Wangari Maathai. Dr. Maathai’s award was
based on her efforts on behalf of conservation and women’s rights. These efforts were made at great personal risk.
In addition, the Kyoto Protocol has been ratified by the requisite number of countries.
Over the past few decades numerous studies have shown an alarming increase in the
concentration of atmospheric particular matter called aerosols resulting from a variety
of human activities, ranging from agricultural to combustion of fossil fuels. Besides
having serious impacts on the health of all living creatures, these particles can affect
planetary radiation budget. Consequences of this change include global temperature
shifts and the altering of atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.
Patterns of particle emission are different from those of the other pollutants included in the first phase of
the EU Framework Directive because of their extreme diversity of origin and source, both primary and
secondary, natural and anthropogenic, and there are significant differences in levels between Member
States and regions within states.
The limited amount of reliable PM10 data makes it difficult to establish a comprehensive overview of
PM10 concentrations and trends in Member States.
Although processes for the production of LVOC are extremely diverse and complex, they are
typically composed of a combination of simpler activities and equipment that are based on
similar scientific and engineering principles. Chapter 2 describes how unit processes, unit
operations, site infrastructure, energy control and management systems are combined and
modified to create a production sequence for the desired LVOC product.
Hóa học khí quyển là một khu vực rộng rãi dựa trên nỗ lực khoa học. Đó là chỉ đạo xác định số lượng các hóa chất khác nhau trong không khí, nguồn gốc của các hóa chất này, và vai trò của họ trong hóa học của bầu khí quyển. Nhiều nhà hóa học khí quyển đang tham gia vào sự phát triển của kỹ thuật để đo số lượng dấu vết của hóa chất khác nhau trong bầu khí quyển, khí thải, và trong depositions. Các nhà hóa học khí quyển nghiên cứu động học và cơ chế...
Steel mills that recycle scrap metal face a similar
incidental emissions problem. North American
automobile manufacturers have used hundreds of
thousands of kilograms of mercury in vehicle
switches and other applications, such as headlights.
Much of this mercury enters the atmosphere when
the scrapped cars are melted down to make new
steel, while some of it contaminates the ground in
the yards where the cars are crushed or shredded.
Nearly all of the mercury found in cars enters the
In his presentation, Dr M. Bittner, Rapporteur on Satellite Measurements of Atmospheric
Consituents, first reviewed the GAW activities in Germany. These include supporting both Global
and Regional stations. Also Germany hosts the QA/SAC for Europe and Africa and has sponsored
GAW training courses at a number of locations in the country. He also explained the activities of
the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and strongly endorsed the importance of coordinating
ground- and space-based atmospheric chemistry measurements.
The study area is
located on an ecosystem that is of low carrying capacity and as such this has
necessitated excessive use of agro-chemicals to enhance productivity. The effects
from these practices is that the chemicals find their way into the lake through runoff
from the agricultural parcels of land. Because the land generally slopes towards the
lake. Poor tillage practices often result in soil erosion and the loose soil is carried
awash into the lake. All these result in increased eutrophication of the lake’s waters.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế, đề tài: "Element analysis of tree rings in pedunculate oak heartwood: an indicator of historical trends in the soil chemistry, related to atmospheric deposition...
In 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Mexico s Petr leos Mexicanos
(PEMEX) began sponsoring this project to characterize the nature and sources of suspended
particulate matter found in the ambient air in Mexico City. This collaborative effort follows
another program sponsored by DOE and PEMEX in the early 1990 s to study gas phase
pollutants and photochemical oxidants in the Valle de Mexico.
The high altitude, the year-
round sunshine, and the complex atmospheric chemistry characteristic of Mexico City create
a challenging laboratory for scientific research.