This book covers comprehensive text and reference work on atmospheric models for
methods of numerical modeling and important related areas of data assimilation and
predictability. It incorporates various aspects of environmental computer modeling
including an historical overview of the subject, approximations to land surface and
atmospheric physics and dynamics, radiative transfer and applications in satellite
remote sensing, and data assimilation.
‘Climate models’ is a very broad topic, so a single volume can only offer a small
sampling of relevant research activities. This volume of 14 chapters includes
descriptions of a variety of modeling studies for a variety of geographic regions by an
international roster of authors.
The climate research community generally uses the rubric ‘climate models’ to refer to
organized sets of computer instructions that produce simulations of climate evolution.
Ecotoxicological models have been applied increasingly to perform chemical risk assessments since the first models of this kind emerged about 25 years ago. The first ecotoxicological models were applied to very specific cases — for instance, cadmium contamination of Lake Erie or mercury contamination of Mex Bay, Alexandria. The models were inspired by the experience gained in ecological modeling and therefore contained good descriptions of ecological processes. Slightly later, the so-called fate models emerged, which were first developed by McKay and others.
There is a bustling atmosphere in the headquarters of the globally active Confusio
Corporation. Everything seems to be just fine. Yet, there is a bad atmosphere in
the precious wood-paneled conference room of the managing director Paul Peppy.
Peppy has drummed together his top managers from all important branch offices; a
hard and uncompromising crackdown is urgently required! Concerning the topic of
the crisis summit, he has intentionally left the participants in the dark.
Parametric representation of shapes, mechanical components modeling with 3D visualization techniques using object oriented programming, the well known golden ratio application on vertical and horizontal displacement investigations of the ground surface, spatial modeling and simulating of dynamic continuous fluid flow process, simulation model for waste-water treatment, an interaction of tilt and illumination conditions at flight simulation and errors in taxiing performance, plant layout optimal plot plan, atmospheric modeling for weather prediction, a stochastic search method that explores ...
Weather natural hazards, the environment and climate change are of concern to all of
us. Especially, it is essential to understand how human activities might impact the
nature. Hence, monitoring, research, and forecasting is of the outmost importance.
Furthermore, climate change and pollution of the environment do not obey national
borders; so, international collaboration on these issues is indeed extremely important.
Air pollution has always been a trans-boundary environmental problem and a matter of global concern for past many years. High concentrations of air pollutants due to numerous anthropogenic activities influence the air quality. There are many books on this subject, but the one in front of you will probably help in filling the gaps existing in the area of air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure, health and control, and can be of great help to graduate students professionals and researchers.
SWAT model was used to assess the impacts of climate change on the streamflow of Ben Hai River Basin. The daily streamflow for 1979 - 1996 and 1997 - 2006 was used to calibrate and validate the SWAT model, respectively. Nash efficiency values for the daily comparison were 0.72 for the calibration period and 0.74 for the validation period. Three scenarios were analyzed relative to the baseli ne with 28-year time series. A doubling of the atmospheric C02 content to 660 ppm (while holding other climatic variables) resulted in a 7.
This book gives an account of the modern view of the global circulation of the atmosphere. It brings the observed nature of the circulation together with theories and simple models of the mechanisms which drive it. Early chapters concentrate on the classical view of the global circulation, on the processes which generate atmospheric motions and on the dynamical constraints which modify them. Later chapters develop more recent themes including low frequency variability and the circulation of other planetary atmospheres....
The litho-hydrodynamic and environmental conditions in the Vietnamese coastal estuarine basin are significantly affected by the land-ocean-atmosphere interaction processes whish tide has a determining role. Application of the coupled 1D, 2D and 3D modeling system could resolve this complicated problem but
it requires other solutions related with the boundary and coupling conditions.
Global warming is the rising average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans since the late 19th century and its projected continuation. Since the early 20th century, Earth's average surface temperature has increased by about 0.8 °C, with about two thirds of the increase occurring since 1980. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain that most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels.
The next chapter describes how a conventional model of ocean-atmosphere interaction
can be modified to include the free convection within the air and the swell of the
ocean. These effects become particularly important for low wind velocities, where the
standard Charnock wind stress formula leads to a singularity. The article should be of
particular interest to readers who are familiar with standard turbulence modeling, and
it is important to weather modeling.
This book presents a fluid mechanics perspective to the dynamics of fronts and vortices and their interaction with waves in geophysical flows. It provides a basic physical background for modeling coherent structures in a geophysical context, and it gives essential information on advanced topics such as spontaneous wave emission and wavemomentum transfer in geophysical flows. Based on a set of lectures by leading specialists, this text is targeted at graduate students, researchers and engineers in geophysics and environmental fluid mechanics.
Messaging systems based on queuing include products such as Microsoft’s MSMQ and
IBM’s MQSeries . The queuing model with their store-and-forward mechanisms come into
play where the sender of the message expects someone to handle the message while imposing
asynchronous communication and guaranteed delivery constraints. A widely used standard
in messaging is the Message Passing Interface Standard (MPI) . MPI is designed for
high performance on both massively parallel machines and workstation clusters.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Mapping background values of atmospheric nitrogen total depositions in Germany based on EMEP deposition modelling and the European Moss Survey 2005 Kartierung der Hintergrundwerte atmosphärischer Stickstoff-
Air travel is continuing to experience the fastest growth among all modes of transport. Increasing total
fuel consumption and the potential impacts of aircraft engine emissions on the global atmosphere have
motivated the industry, scientific community, and international governments to seek various emissions
reduction options. Despite the efforts to understand and mitigate the impacts of aviation emissions, it still
remains uncertain whether proposed emissions reduction options are technologically and financially
This study briefly summarizes the thunderstorm activities in Vietnam. To predict thunderstorms in the Noi Bai Airport region, the thunderstorm indices are calculated for 64 grid points nearby Noi Bai region from the predicted meteorological fields with RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) model. The forecast procedure for thunderstorm is built for this region with four prediction factors, such as CAPEmax, Kimax, SI min, Vtmax in the forecast threshold of 0.6. As a result, the occurrence of thunderstorms reaches 80% for the duration of 36 hours.
In this paper we prove the global existence and uniqueness (regularity) of strong solutions to the three-dimensional viscous primitive equations, which model large scale ocean and atmosphere dynamics. 1. Introduction Large scale dynamics of oceans and atmosphere is governed by the primitive equations which are derived from the Navier-Stokes equations, with rotation, coupled to thermodynamics and salinity diﬀusion-transport equations, which account for the buoyancy forces and stratiﬁcation eﬀects under the Boussinesq approximation. ...
Emission inventories play a dual role in global air pollution issues. Firstly, they can be used
directly to establish the more important source categories, to identify trends in emissions and
to examine the impact of different policy approaches. Secondly, emission inventories are used
to drive atmospheric models applied to assess the environmental consequences of changing
trace gas emissions and concentrations and to provide advice to policy makers. This second
role contributes to the atmospheric modelling community being an important user of emission
The Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston helped by a partial vacuum. Improving on the design of the 1712 Newcomen steam engine, the Watt steam engine, developed sporadically from 1763 to 1775, was a great step in the development of the steam engine. Offering a dramatic increase in fuel efficiency, James Watt's design became synonymous with steam engines, due in no small part to his business partner, Matthew Boulton.