This book provides a general introduction to the popular topic of climate variability. It explores various aspects of climate variability and change from different perspectives, ranging from the basic nature of low-frequency atmospheric variability to the adaptation to climate variability and change. This easy and accessible book can be used by professionals and non professionals alike.
Global change, including climate change, ecosystem shifts and biodiversity loss as a result
of explosive human population growth and consumption, is emerging as one of the most
important issues of our time (Vitousek, 1994). Climate change in particular appears to be
altering the function, structure and stability of the Earth’s ecosystems (Lovelock, 2009). It has
been marked by an 80% increase in atmospheric CO2 level and a 0.
With a global average irradiance of 342 W/m2, the Sun is by far the largest source
of energy for planet Earth. In comparison, the internal energy produced by Earth
itself is only about 0.087 W/m2 (Pollack et al., 1993), which in turn is 3.5 times
larger than the 0.025 W/m2 of heat produced by the burning of fossil fuels.
About 31% (31 units) of the solar energy which arrives at the top of the atmosphere
is reflected back to space by scattering from clouds, aerosols, and the
Earth’s surface. Almost 20 units of solar radiation are absorbed in the atmosphere....
This paper analyzes the experience of the United States postal savings, and
compares it to Japan’s experience with a view to assessing the past and potential
future role of postal savings in Japan. It finds that demand for postal savings
deposits is explained, in both countries, mainly by two variables: price (interest-
differentials) and confidence in private banks. Geographical accessibility in rural
areas is of less, and diminishing, importance.
Disagreements involving environmental priorities and strategic approaches, and balancing the
relative roles of compliance assistance with enforcement, contribute to the complexity and
friction that come with enforcing national pollution control laws. Other contributing factors
include the increasing number of statutory and related regulatory pollution control requirements
(some with conflicting mandates) and the adequacy of the resources available for their
This book gives an account of the modern view of the global circulation of the atmosphere. It brings the observed nature of the circulation together with theories and simple models of the mechanisms which drive it. Early chapters concentrate on the classical view of the global circulation, on the processes which generate atmospheric motions and on the dynamical constraints which modify them. Later chapters develop more recent themes including low frequency variability and the circulation of other planetary atmospheres....
Spirituality. Finally, spirituality may be another important variable in a cancer patient’s
experience. Spirituality may buffer against the negative effects of life stressors. It has
been demonstrated that spirituality can enhance physical and psychological well-being
(Oxman, Freeman, & Manheimer, 1995), and predicts various health outcomes (Levin,
1994). In fact, Levin (1994) reviews more than 250 published empirical studies on the
largely beneficial health effects of religious or spiritual practice.
To reduce the likelihood that variability, in appraisal scor-
ing between researchers, did not exclude valid material for
synthesis, 42% (43/103) of all reports categorized as ‘Mid’
were re-appraised for inter-rater reliability. A purposive
approach was used to capture potential sources of variabil-
ity. Therefore, selection of excluded reports for re-appraisal
ensured that different types of interventions (i.e. popula-
tion-based, experimental, school-based, etc.
There are two main reasons why the chemical process industry should be motivated
to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions: rising concerns in companies,
the public and scientifi c community about climate change or global
warming, and the increasing fraction of energy in manufacturing costs.
‘ Climate change ’  in this context, means a change of climate, which is attributed
directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the
global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed
over comparable time periods....
Climate dynamicists generally characterize the Hadley circulation in
terms of some derived meteorological parameters, such as the mass stream
function (the nondivergent part of the flow) or the velocity potential (the
divergent circulation), both of which are based on measurements of the
three-dimensional wind field. Yet, we know very little about how such indices
have varied in the past—beyond the most recent decades.
SWAT model was used to assess the impacts of climate change on the streamflow of Ben Hai River Basin. The daily streamflow for 1979 - 1996 and 1997 - 2006 was used to calibrate and validate the SWAT model, respectively. Nash efficiency values for the daily comparison were 0.72 for the calibration period and 0.74 for the validation period. Three scenarios were analyzed relative to the baseli ne with 28-year time series. A doubling of the atmospheric C02 content to 660 ppm (while holding other climatic variables) resulted in a 7.
The Earth is the only planet in our solar system that supports life. The complex process of evolution occurred on Earth only because of some unique environmental conditions that were present: water, an oxygen-rich atmosphere, and a suitable surface temperature. Climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period (typically decades or longer).
Greenhouse gases are accumulating in Earth’s atmosphere
as a result of human activities, causing surface air
temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures to rise.
Temperatures are, in fact, rising. The changes observed over
the last several decades are likely mostly due to human activities,
but we cannot rule out that some significant part of
these changes is also a reflection of natural variability.
Human-induced warming and associated sea level rises are
expected to continue through the 21st century.