This book is written primarily to engineering students in the fields of basic chemistry, environmental
chemistry, food production, chemical and biochemical engineering who in the beginning of their
university studies receive education in inorganic chemistry and applied chemistry in general.
The aim of this book is to explain and clarify important terms and concepts which the students are
supposed to be familiar with. The book can not replace existing educational textbooks but it gives a
great supplement to the education within chemistry.
The heroine of this book is nature’s simplest atom, the hydrogen atom. With one exception—the helium atom—hydrogen is the mother of all atoms and molecules. The hydrogen atom consists of a single electron and a single proton; the proton is the nucleus of the hydrogen atom and serves as the electron’s anchor. The universe is teeming with hydrogen: every cubic centimeter of dark interstellar space, essentially void of any other known matter,1 contains a few atoms of hydrogen
This report provides a long-term assessment of and outlook for nuclear physics. The first
phase of the report articulates the scientific rationale and objectives of the field, while the second
phase provides a global context for the field and its long-term priorities and proposes a
framework for progress through 2020 and beyond. The full statement of task for the committee is
in Appendix A.
Many physical phenomena of great practical interest to engineers
chemists, biologists, physicists, etc. were not in Gen. Phys. I & II
The development of experimental equiment and techniques
modern physics can go inside the microscopic world (atoms,
electrons, nucleus, etc.)
New principles, new laws for the microscopic (subatomic)
world were discoverved
Tài liệu tham khảo giáo trình nhôm trong thiết kế xây dựng - Chương 1 About aluminium
1.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION
1.1.1 The element
Aluminium is a metallic element having the chemical symbol Al, with
atomic number 13 and atomic weight 27. The nucleus of the atom contains
13 protons and 14 neutrons (a total of 81 quarks). Aluminium is the
third most common element in the earth’s crust, coming after oxygen
and silicon. It makes up 8% of the crust’s total mass and is the most
In this chapter, a brief description of the basic concepts governing the flow of current in a pn junction are discussed. Both intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors are discussed. The characteristics of depletion and diffusion capacitance are explored through the use of example problems solved with MATLAB. The effect of doping concentration on the breakdown voltage of pn junctions is examined. 10.1 10.1.1 Energy bands INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTORS
According to the planetary model of an isolated atom, the nucleus that contains protons and neutrons constitutes most of the mass of the atom.
CHAPTER TEN SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS In this chapter, a brief description of the basic concepts governing the flow of current in a pn junction are discussed. Both intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors are discussed. The characteristics of depletion and diffusion capacitance are explored through the use of example problems solved with MATLAB. The effect of doping concentration on the breakdown voltage of pn junctions is examined. 10.1 10.1.
It is well known for you that every atom contains as its center
a nucleus that is:
much smaller in size than the atom
carrying almost the total mass of the atom
This chapter provides deeper knowledge about NUCLEI
Vật chất cấu tạo từ các nguyên tử Mọi vật chất quanh ta, kể cả cơ thể của chúng ta, đều cấu tạo từ các nguyên tử (atom). Các nguyên tử rất nhỏ: một cm3 nước chứa khoảng 1023 (một trăm ngàn tỉ tỉ) nguyên tử ! Hai hay nhiều nguyên tử kết hợp lại thành phân tử. Những đại phân tử hữu cơ như ADN có thể bao gồm hàng triệu nguyên tử. Nguyên tử gồm một hạt nhân (nucleus) ở giữa và các electron chuyển động chung quanh Các electron được ký hiệu là e-. ...
The structure and dynamics of proteins and enzymatic activity
is intrinsically linked to the strength and positions of hydrogen
bonds in the system. A hydrogen bond results from an attractive
force between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen
atom. The hydrogen is attached to a strongly electronegative
heteroatom, such as oxygen or nitrogen, termed the hydrogen-
bond donor. This electronegative atom decentralizes
the electron cloud around the hydrogen nucleus, leaving the
hydrogen atom with a positive partial charge.