Atoms and bonding

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  • Two of the main distinctions between chemical engineers and other engineering disciplines are the topics of mass and energy balances. Within these two topics there are a lot of underlying chemical principles that help chemical engineers to perform calculations to determine what is happening in a system, allowing better control of a process.

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  • The informational efficiency of the bond market relative to the stock market has received increasing attention in recent years. For example, Kwan (1996) finds, using daily data, that stock returns lead bond returns, suggesting that stocks may be informationally more efficient than bonds, while Hotchkiss and Ronen (2002) find, using higher-frequency (intra- day) data, that the informational efficiency of corporate bonds is similar to that of the underlying stocks.

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  • The structure and dynamics of proteins and enzymatic activity is intrinsically linked to the strength and positions of hydrogen bonds in the system.[1] A hydrogen bond results from an attractive force between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom.[2] The hydrogen is attached to a strongly electronegative heteroatom, such as oxygen or nitrogen, termed the hydrogen- bond donor. This electronegative atom decentralizes the electron cloud around the hydrogen nucleus, leaving the hydrogen atom with a positive partial charge.

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  • Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom, Many-Electron Atoms and Chemical Bonding, Molecular Orbitals, Spectroscopy, and Chemical Bonding,... as the main contents of the lesson lecture 9 "Tentative material to be covered for Exam 2". Invite you to consult the lesson for more documents serving the academic needs and research.

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  • The first two chapters of the text cover a variety of topics that you need to get started with your study of organic chemistry. Chapter 1 reviews the topics from general chemistry that will be important to your study of organic chemistry. The chapter starts with a description of the structure of atoms and then proceeds to a description of the structure of molecules. Molecular orbital theory is introduced. Acid–base chemistry, which is central to understanding many organic reactions, is reviewed.

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  • Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. A protein is simply a polypeptide composed of amino acids linked by a peptide bond, and the term generally, but not always, refers to the folded conformation. To understand how an enzyme functions, including its binding and functional properties, it is necessary to know the properties of the amino acids and how the amino acids are linked together, including the torsion angles of the bonds and the space occupied, and the interactions of the atoms leading to the final conformations of the folded protein.

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  • The beginning student in Organic Chemistry is often overwhelmed by facts, concepts, and new language. Each year, textbooks of Organic Chemistry grow in quantity of subject matter and in level of sophistication. This Schaum’s Outline was undertaken to give a clear view of first-year Organic Chemistry through the careful detailed solution of illustrative problems. Such problems make up over 80% of the book, the remainder being a concise presentation of the material. Our goal is for students to learn by thinking and solving problems rather than by merely being told....

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  • This is a book about plant chemistry written by a herbalist with no claims of being a chemist. Having a driving ambition to understand the nature of herbal medicines—in particular what makes them work—I delved head first into the previously alien world of atoms, molecules and bonds. Having learned enough to be engaged to teach the topic to budding herbalists and naturopaths, I set about formalising the teaching notes—the result is the original (1996) edition of this text.

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  • Comprehensive manual embracing essentially all the classical and modern areas of chemical kinetics. Provides details of modern applications in chemistry, technology and biochemistry. Special sections of the book treat subjects not covered sufficiently in other manuals, including: modern methods of experimental determination of rate constants of reactions including laser pico- and femtochemistry, magnetochemistry, and ESR; and descriptions of advanced theories of elementary chemical processes.

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  • Chemical reactions (abiotic reactions) are “classical” chemical reactions that are not mediated by bacteria. They may include reaction processes such as precipitation, hydrolysis, complexation, elimination, substitution etc. that transform chemicals to other chemicals and potentially alter their phase/state (solid, liquid, gas, dissolved). Precipitation is the removal of ions from solution by the formation of insoluble compounds, i.e. a solid-phase precipitate. Hydrolysis is a process of chemical reaction by the addition of water.

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  • Physical properties of metals, ceramics, and polymers, such as ductility, thermal expansion, heat capacity, elastic modulus, electrical conductivity, and dielectric and magnetic properties, are a direct result of the structure and bonding of the atoms and ions in the material. An understanding of the origin of the differences in these properties is of great engineering importance.

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  • A covalent bond results when two atoms share electrons in such a way that each atom has an octet of electrons in the outer shell. In a hydrogen atom, the outer shell is complete when it contains two electrons. If hydrogen is in the presence of a strong electron acceptor, it gives up its electron to become a hydrogen ion (H+). But if this is not possible, hydrogen can share with another atom and thereby have a completed outer shell. For example, one hydrogen atom will share with another hydrogen atom. Their two orbitals overlap,...

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  • Both infrared and Raman spectroscopy are extremely powerful analytical techniques for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. However, neither technique should be used in isolation, since other analytical methods may yield important complementary and/or confirmatory information regarding the sample. Even simple chemical tests and elemental analysis should not be overlooked and techniques such as chromatography, thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, atomic absorption spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, etc.

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  • Department of Chemistry ‘IFM’, University of Torino, Italy; 2Department of Biology, University ‘Roma Tre’, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Structural and Functional Biology, University of Insubria, Italy Haem binding to human serum albumin (HSA) endows the protein with peculiar spectroscopic properties. Here, the effect of ibuprofen and warfarin on the spectroscopic properties of ferric haem –human serum albumin (ferric HSA–haem) and of ferrous nitrosylated haem –human serum albumin (ferrous HSA –haem-NO) is reported.

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  • Greek philosopher Empedocles (500 BC) suggested that chemical changes are caused by an emotional likes and dislikes. The love between two substances will make them unite and form a third substance. On the other hand, if the substances start to had each other they will decompose.

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  • In IONIC BONDING the valence electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other atom. Ionic bonds occur between metals and nonmetals when there is a large difference in electronegativity. In COVALENT BONDING the valence electrons are shared as pairs between the bonded atoms. Pure covalent bonding only occurs when two nonmetal atoms of the same kind bind to each other. When two different nonmetal atoms are bonded or a nonmetal and a metal are bonded, then the bond is a mixture of covalent and ionic bonding called polar covalent bonding.

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  • Molecules, small structures composed of atoms, are essential substances for lives. However, we didn’t have the clear answer to the following questions until the 1920s: why molecules can exist in stable as rigid networks between atoms, and why molecules can change into different types of molecules. The most important event for solving the puzzles is the discovery of the quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is the theory for small particles such as electrons and nuclei, and was applied to hydrogen molecule by Heitler and London at 1927.

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  • Innovation in engineering often means the clever use of a new material - new to a particular application, but not necessarily (although sometimes) new in the sense of ‘recently developed’. Plastic paper clips and ceramic turbine-blades both represent attempts to do better with polymers and ceramics what had previously been done well with metals. And engineering disasters are frequently caused by the misuse of materials.

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  • In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C=O. It is common to several classes of organic compounds, as part of many larger functional groups. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex. Other organic carbonyls are urea and the carbamates, the derivatives of acyl chlorides chloroformates and phosgene, carbonate esters, thioesters, lactones, lactams, hydroxamates, and isocyanates.

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  • Coordinate covalent bonds: a bond formed when both electrons of the bond are donated by one atom. [H3N: Ag :NH3]+ Ag+ + 2(:NH3) Electron configuration of Ag [Kr]4d105s15P0 Ag+ [Kr]4d105s0 5P0 Sp hybrid orbitals: accommodate 2 pairs of electrons. Linear Complex ion: A metal ion with Lewis base attached to it through coordinate covalent bond. Complex (Coordinate compound): a compound consisting either of complex ions and other ions of opposite charge or of neutral complex species.

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