Two of the main distinctions between chemical engineers and other engineering disciplines are the topics
of mass and energy balances. Within these two topics there are a lot of underlying chemical principles that
help chemical engineers to perform calculations to determine what is happening in a system, allowing
better control of a process.
The informational eﬃciency of the bond market relative to the stock market has received
increasing attention in recent years. For example, Kwan (1996) ﬁnds, using daily data,
that stock returns lead bond returns, suggesting that stocks may be informationally more
eﬃcient than bonds, while Hotchkiss and Ronen (2002) ﬁnd, using higher-frequency (intra-
day) data, that the informational eﬃciency of corporate bonds is similar to that of the
The structure and dynamics of proteins and enzymatic activity
is intrinsically linked to the strength and positions of hydrogen
bonds in the system. A hydrogen bond results from an attractive
force between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen
atom. The hydrogen is attached to a strongly electronegative
heteroatom, such as oxygen or nitrogen, termed the hydrogen-
bond donor. This electronegative atom decentralizes
the electron cloud around the hydrogen nucleus, leaving the
hydrogen atom with a positive partial charge.
Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom, Many-Electron Atoms and Chemical Bonding, Molecular Orbitals, Spectroscopy, and Chemical Bonding,... as the main contents of the lesson lecture 9 "Tentative material to be covered for Exam 2". Invite you to consult the lesson for more documents serving the academic needs and research.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Beginning chemistry" presents the following contents: Basic concepts, atoms and atomic masses, electronic configuration of the atom, chemical bonding, inorganic nomenclature, formula calculations.
The first two chapters of the text cover a variety of topics that you need to get started with your study of organic chemistry.
Chapter 1 reviews the topics from general chemistry that will be important to your study of organic chemistry. The chapter starts with a description of the structure of atoms and then proceeds to a description of the structure of molecules. Molecular orbital theory is introduced. Acid–base chemistry, which is central to understanding many organic reactions, is reviewed.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. A protein is simply a polypeptide
composed of amino acids linked by a peptide bond, and the term generally, but
not always, refers to the folded conformation. To understand how an enzyme functions,
including its binding and functional properties, it is necessary to know the
properties of the amino acids and how the amino acids are linked together, including
the torsion angles of the bonds and the space occupied, and the interactions of the
atoms leading to the final conformations of the folded protein.
The beginning student in Organic Chemistry is often overwhelmed by facts, concepts, and new language.
Each year, textbooks of Organic Chemistry grow in quantity of subject matter and in level of sophistication.
This Schaum’s Outline was undertaken to give a clear view of first-year Organic Chemistry through the careful
detailed solution of illustrative problems. Such problems make up over 80% of the book, the remainder being a
concise presentation of the material. Our goal is for students to learn by thinking and solving problems rather
than by merely being told....
Comprehensive manual embracing essentially all the classical and modern areas of chemical kinetics. Provides details of modern applications in chemistry, technology and biochemistry.
Special sections of the book treat subjects not covered sufficiently in other manuals, including: modern methods of experimental determination of rate constants of reactions including laser pico- and femtochemistry, magnetochemistry, and ESR; and descriptions of advanced theories of elementary chemical processes.
This is a book about plant chemistry written by a herbalist with no
claims of being a chemist. Having a driving ambition to understand
the nature of herbal medicines—in particular what makes them
work—I delved head first into the previously alien world of atoms,
molecules and bonds. Having learned enough to be engaged to teach
the topic to budding herbalists and naturopaths, I set about formalising
the teaching notes—the result is the original (1996) edition of
Chemical reactions (abiotic reactions) are “classical” chemical reactions that
are not mediated by bacteria. They may include reaction processes such as
precipitation, hydrolysis, complexation, elimination, substitution etc. that
transform chemicals to other chemicals and potentially alter their phase/state
(solid, liquid, gas, dissolved).
Precipitation is the removal of ions from solution by the formation of insoluble
compounds, i.e. a solid-phase precipitate.
Hydrolysis is a process of chemical reaction by the addition of water.
Physical properties of metals, ceramics, and polymers, such as ductility, thermal expansion, heat
capacity, elastic modulus, electrical conductivity, and dielectric and magnetic properties, are a direct
result of the structure and bonding of the atoms and ions in the material. An understanding of the
origin of the differences in these properties is of great engineering importance.
A covalent bond results when two atoms share electrons in such a way that each atom has an octet of
electrons in the outer shell. In a hydrogen atom, the outer shell is complete when it contains two
electrons. If hydrogen is in the presence of a strong electron acceptor, it gives up its electron to
become a hydrogen ion (H+). But if this is not possible, hydrogen can share with another atom and
thereby have a completed outer shell. For example, one hydrogen atom will share with another
hydrogen atom. Their two orbitals overlap,...
Both infrared and Raman spectroscopy are extremely powerful analytical
techniques for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. However, neither
technique should be used in isolation, since other analytical methods may
yield important complementary and/or confirmatory information regarding the
sample. Even simple chemical tests and elemental analysis should not be
overlooked and techniques such as chromatography, thermal analysis, nuclear
magnetic resonance, atomic absorption spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, ultraviolet
and visible spectroscopy, etc.
(BQ) Part 1 book "World of Chemistry" presents the following contents: Chemistry - An introduction, matter, chemical foundations - Elements, atoms and ions, nomenclature, measurements and calculations, chemical composition, modern atomic theory, chemical bonding,...
Department of Chemistry ‘IFM’, University of Torino, Italy; 2Department of Biology, University ‘Roma Tre’, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Structural and Functional Biology, University of Insubria, Italy
Haem binding to human serum albumin (HSA) endows the protein with peculiar spectroscopic properties. Here, the effect of ibuprofen and warfarin on the spectroscopic properties of ferric haem –human serum albumin (ferric HSA–haem) and of ferrous nitrosylated haem –human serum albumin (ferrous HSA –haem-NO) is reported.
Greek philosopher Empedocles (500
BC) suggested that chemical
changes are caused by an
emotional likes and dislikes.
The love between two substances
will make them unite and form a
third substance. On the other
hand, if the substances start to had
each other they will decompose.
In IONIC BONDING the valence electrons are completely
transferred from one atom to the other atom.
Ionic bonds occur between metals and nonmetals
when there is a large difference in electronegativity. In COVALENT BONDING the valence electrons are
shared as pairs between the bonded atoms.
Pure covalent bonding only occurs when two nonmetal
atoms of the same kind bind to each other. When two
different nonmetal atoms are bonded or a nonmetal and
a metal are bonded, then the bond is a mixture of covalent
and ionic bonding called polar covalent bonding.
Molecules, small structures composed of atoms, are essential substances for lives.
However, we didn’t have the clear answer to the following questions until the 1920s:
why molecules can exist in stable as rigid networks between atoms, and why
molecules can change into different types of molecules. The most important event for
solving the puzzles is the discovery of the quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is
the theory for small particles such as electrons and nuclei, and was applied to
hydrogen molecule by Heitler and London at 1927.
Innovation in engineering often means the clever use of a new material - new to a
particular application, but not necessarily (although sometimes) new in the sense of
‘recently developed’. Plastic paper clips and ceramic turbine-blades both represent
attempts to do better with polymers and ceramics what had previously been done well
with metals. And engineering disasters are frequently caused by the misuse of