There is hardly any book that aims at solving problems typically encountered in the
laser field, and this book intends to fill the void. Following some initial exercises related to
general aspects in laser physics (Chapt. I), the subsequent problems are organized along the
following topics: (i) Interaction of radiation with matter either made of atoms or ions,
weakly interacting with surrounding species, or made of more complicated elements such
as molecules or semiconductors (Chapters 2 and 3). (ii) Wave propagation in optical media
and optical resonators (Chapters 4 and 5)....
Chemical reactions (abiotic reactions) are “classical” chemical reactions that
are not mediated by bacteria. They may include reaction processes such as
precipitation, hydrolysis, complexation, elimination, substitution etc. that
transform chemicals to other chemicals and potentially alter their phase/state
(solid, liquid, gas, dissolved).
Precipitation is the removal of ions from solution by the formation of insoluble
compounds, i.e. a solid-phase precipitate.
Hydrolysis is a process of chemical reaction by the addition of water.
Physical properties of metals, ceramics, and polymers, such as ductility, thermal expansion, heat
capacity, elastic modulus, electrical conductivity, and dielectric and magnetic properties, are a direct
result of the structure and bonding of the atoms and ions in the material. An understanding of the
origin of the differences in these properties is of great engineering importance.
(BQ) Part 1 book "World of Chemistry" presents the following contents: Chemistry - An introduction, matter, chemical foundations - Elements, atoms and ions, nomenclature, measurements and calculations, chemical composition, modern atomic theory, chemical bonding,...
A covalent bond results when two atoms share electrons in such a way that each atom has an octet of
electrons in the outer shell. In a hydrogen atom, the outer shell is complete when it contains two
electrons. If hydrogen is in the presence of a strong electron acceptor, it gives up its electron to
become a hydrogen ion (H+). But if this is not possible, hydrogen can share with another atom and
thereby have a completed outer shell. For example, one hydrogen atom will share with another
hydrogen atom. Their two orbitals overlap,...
Effects of Structure on Properties
Physical properties of metals, ceramics, and polymers, such as ductility, thermal expansion, heat capacity, elastic modulus, electrical conductivity, and dielectric and magnetic properties, are a direct result of the structure and bonding of the atoms and ions in the
Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based.
This third edition retains the range of analytical techniques and the structure
of individual chapters of the second edition. However, there are some
significant changes, with the introduction of new topics and some deletions,
to take into account the changing priorities in environmental analysis.
Scientists still do not know exactly what causes the earth’s magnetic field. In the 16th century, it was believed that a mountain of magnetite (a magnetic mineral) was located at the North Pole and that this mountain caused the earth’s magnetic field. English physician William Gilbert was the first to propose, in 1600, that the earth itself was a massive magnet. Current theories hold that the earth’s magnetic field is created by currents within the liquid outer core of the earth, which is composed mostly of iron.
Sputtering is similar to vacuum deposition. In this method, an inert gas such as argon or helium is introduced into a chamber that contains anode and cathode electrodes supplied by an external high-voltage source. The anode contains the sample to be deposited on and the cathode contains the deposited material. The principle is that the high voltage ignites a plasma effect in the inert gas and the gas ions bombard the target containing the material to be deposited. When the kinetic energy of the bombarding ions is sufﬁciently high, some of the atoms from the target surface are freed and...
Ionic methods of separation have been used since the industrial revolution in Europe
to reduce hardness of water. In the mid-nineteenth century, British researchers treated
various clays with ammonium sulfate or carbonate in solution to release calcium.
In the early twentieth century, zeolite columns were used to remove interfering
calcium and magnesium ions from solutions to permit determination of sulfate. Ionic
separation procedures were used in the Manhattan project to purify and concentrate
radioactive materials needed to make atom bombs.
Onconase (ONC) is an amphibian member of the pancreatic ribonuclease
superfamily that is selectively toxic to tumor cells. It is a much less efficient
enzyme than the archetypal ribonuclease A and, in an attempt to gain fur-ther insight, we report the first atomic resolution crystal structure of ONC,
determined in complex with sulfate ions at 100 K.
-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase [vacuolar H
-pyro-phosphatase (V-PPase); EC 220.127.116.11] is a homodimeric proton translocase; it
plays a pivotal role in electrogenic translocation of protons from the cyto-sol to the vacuolar lumen, at the expense of PPi hydrolysis, for the storage
of ions, sugars, and other metabolites.
Amyloid protein (Ab1–40) aggregation and conformation
was examined using native and sodium dodecyl sulfate/
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,and the results com-pared with those obtained by atomic force microscopy,
and with Congo red binding,sedimentation and turbidity
assays. The amount of Ab aggregation measured was
different,depending upon the method used. Incubation
for 15 min at pH 5.0 or in the presence of Fe
did not alter the level of Aboligomers observed on
SDS and native gels....
Metals are used as biomaterials due to their excellent electrical and thermal conductivity and mechanical
properties. Since some electrons are independent in metals, they can quickly transfer an electric charge and
thermal energy. The mobile free electrons act as the binding force to hold the positive metal ions together.
This attraction is strong, as evidenced by the closely packed atomic arrangement resulting in high specific
gravity and high melting points of most metals.
Excimer lasers are pulsed gas lasers that intrinsically offer efficient and powerful
broadband emission at several spectral regions throughout the ultraviolet.
The spectral widths are typically 2 nm. An exception to this categorization is the
XeF laser urith its broadly tunable C+A transition (approximately 50 nm) in the
visible. The broad tunability results from the steeply repulsive A state.
Coordinate covalent bonds: a bond formed when both electrons of the bond are donated by one atom. [H3N: Ag :NH3]+ Ag+ + 2(:NH3) Electron configuration of Ag [Kr]4d105s15P0 Ag+ [Kr]4d105s0 5P0
Sp hybrid orbitals: accommodate 2 pairs of electrons. Linear Complex ion: A metal ion with Lewis base attached to it through coordinate covalent bond. Complex (Coordinate compound): a compound consisting either of complex ions and other ions of opposite charge or of neutral complex species.
A method for determination of arsenic species in environmental samples have been studied (water and sediment of Nhatrang onshore). The analytical method used was ion-exchange liquid
chromatography coupled on-line to atomic absorption pectrometry through hydride generation. It was applied to determination of As species in H3PO4+NH2OH.HCl extracts of sediments. The
efficiency of this extraction procedure was studied in details. The sensibility of this investigated method allows both the analysis of As-poor samples and the dilution extracts, of As-rich ones.