In all instances, interviewees were given the option of speaking for attribution or
off-the-record, and almost all respondents elected to speak off-the-record. A complete
listing of the more than 100 interviewees for the overall study will be included as an
appendix to the final report. The selection of interviewees considered that individuals
from the bench scientist through the agency staff analyst to the politically appointed
decisionmaker, as well as advocates from outside the agency, would provide informative
Ideally, civil registration systems with good attribution of cause of death provide accurate
data on the level of maternal mortality and the causes of maternal deaths. In countries
with incomplete civil registration systems, it is difficult to measure accurately the levels of
maternal mortality. First, it is challenging to identify maternal deaths precisely, as the deaths
of women of reproductive age might not be recorded at all.
The second challenge is to ensure that health is prioritized within overall
development and economic policies. This means looking beyond the health
system and addressing the broad determinants of ill-health - low levels of
education, poverty, unequal gender relations, high risk behaviours, and an
unhealthy environment - as well as raising the profile of health within national
poverty reduction and government reform processes.
Tại sao cần chuẩn bị dữ liệu?. Làm sạch dữ liệu ( data cleaning) . Chọn lọc dữ liệu (data selection) . Rút gọn dữ liệu ( data reduction) . Mã hoá dữ liệu3CÁC KIỂU DỮ LIỆUDữ liệu dạng thuộc tính giá trị (Attribute-value data) Các kiểu dữ liệu số (numeric), phi số (categorical) Tĩnh, động (thời gian) Các dạng dữ liệu khác.
The first, most conventional way to characterize the global health picture is a description
of health and disease. Today, the overall picture for child health and maternal health in poor
countries is worrisome indeed. While child mortality has steadily declined in the last two
decades, still approximately 10.8 million children under the age of five die each year. Progress
on key indicators is slowing, and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, child mortality is on the rise.
The great bulk of the mortality decline since the 1970s is attributable to reduction in deaths...
The population exposure without PM10 fraction attributable to road traffic is shown in Figure 6.
Compared to total PM10, the frequency distribution changes considerably. Most people would live in
areas with PM10 values less than 20 µg/m3. In France and Switzerland, less than 3% of the population
would live in areas with PM10 greater than 20 µg/m3. In Austria, this portion is higher due to an
increased non-traffic caused regional PM10 background.
Population trends affect the course of and prospects for poverty reduction.
Diverse and changing population dynamics have had dramatic impacts in sev-
eral world regions. Sub-Saharan Africa remains in a poverty trap where demo-
graphic factors – high fertility, high infant and child mortality, and excess
adult mortality (including that due to HIV/AIDS) – play significant roles.
Eastern Asia, on the other hand, has seen dramatic declines in the number
of persons living in income poverty.
As Cigarette Use Declines, Tobacco Industry Follows the
Money to Other Tobacco Products
In August, CDC released results of the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey
which found youth cigarette use continues to decline and now stands at 15.8
percent among high school students and 4.3 percent among middle school
students. These reductions can be attributed to implementing the evidence-
based policies proven to reduce tobacco use evaluated in “State of Tobacco
Aging is accompanied by gradual cellular dysfunction associated with an
accumulation of damaged proteins, particularly via oxidative processes.
This cellular dysfunction has been attributed, at least in part, to impair-ment of mitochondrial function as this organelle is both a major source of
oxidants and a target for their damaging effects, which can result in a
reduction of energy production, thereby compromising cell function.