Today, digital audio applications are part of our everyday lives. Popular examples
include audio CDs, MP3 audio players, radio broadcasts, TV or video DVDs,
video games, digital cameras with sound track, digital camcorders, telephones,
telephone answering machines and telephone enquiries using speech or word
Typical audio signal classes are telephone speech, wideband speech, and wideband audio, all
of which differ in bandwidth, dynamic range, and in listener expectation of offered quality. The
quality of telephone-bandwidth speech is acceptable for telephony and for some videotelephony and
In order to more efﬁciently transmit or store high-quality audio signals, it is often desirable to reduce the amount of information required to represent them. In the case of digital audio signals, the amount of binary information needed to accurately reproduce the original pulse code modulation (PCM) samples may be reduced by applying
PCM Bit Rates
Typical audio signal classes are telephone speech, wideband speech, and wideband audio, all of which differ in bandwidth, dynamic range, and in listener expectation of offered quality. The quality of
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With the advent of multimedia, digital signal processing (DSP) of sound has emerged
from the shadow of bandwidth-limited speech processing. Today, the main applications
of audio DSP are high quality audio coding and the digital generation and
manipulation of music signals. They share common research topics including perceptual
measurement techniques and analysis/synthesis methods. Smaller but nonetheless
very important topics are hearing aids using signal processing technology and hardware
architectures for digital signal processing of audio.
EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing 2003:10, 993–1000 c 2003 Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Time-Scale Invariant Audio Data Embedding
Mohamed F. Mansour
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ahmed H. Tewﬁk
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA Email: tewﬁk@ece.umn.edu Received 31 May 2002 and in revised form 22 December 2002 We propose a novel algorithm for high-quality data embedding in audio.
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 Impulsive Noise Statistical Models for Impulsive Noise Median Filters Impulsive Noise Removal Using Linear Prediction Models Robust Parameter Estimation Restoration of Archived Gramophone Records Summary
mpulsive noise consists of relatively short duration “on/off” noise pulses, caused by a variety of sources, such as switching noise, adverse channel environments in a communication system, dropouts or surface degradation of audio recordings, clicks from computer keyboards, etc.
Existing AM and FM broadcasting have remained relatively unchanged since the 1960s when FM stereo transmission was introduced. Meanwhile, audio recording techniques have undergone tremendous change from traditional analog to high quality digital recording with the introduction of compact disc, and most recently MP3 compressed audio recording to permit music be transmitted via the Internet. Traditional analog broadcasts were originally designed for stationary receivers and suffer from degradation of the received signal when used in a mobile environment with weak signal strength and multipath...