Modelling and simulation are disciplines of major importance for science and engineering. There is no science without models, and simulation has nowadays become a very useful tool, sometimes unavoidable, for development of both science and engineering. The main attractive feature of cellular automata is that, in spite of their conceptual simplicity which allows an easiness of implementation for computer simulation, as a detailed and complete mathematical analysis in principle, they are able to exhibit a wide variety of amazingly complex behaviour....
We compare the effectiveness of two related • machine translation models applied to the same limited-domain task. One is a transfer model with monolingual head automata for analysis and generation; the other is a direct transduction model based on bilingual head transducers. We conclude that the head transducer model is more effective according to measures of accuracy, computational requirements, model size, and development effort.
We present a language model consisting of a collection of costed bidirectional finite state automata associated with the head words of phrases. The model is suitable for incremental application of lexical associations in a dynamic programming search for optimal dependency tree derivations. We also present a model and algorithm for machine translation involving optimal "tiling" of a dependency tree with entries of a costed bilingual lexicon. Experimental results are reported comparing methods for assigning cost functions to these models.
The following will be discussed in this chapter: Applications of complementing and incrementing machines, equivalent machines, moore equivalent to mealy, proof, example, mealy equivalent to moore, proof, example.
Parametric representation of shapes, mechanical components modeling with 3D visualization techniques using object oriented programming, the well known golden ratio application on vertical and horizontal displacement investigations of the ground surface, spatial modeling and simulating of dynamic continuous fluid flow process, simulation model for waste-water treatment, an interaction of tilt and illumination conditions at flight simulation and errors in taxiing performance, plant layout optimal plot plan, atmospheric modeling for weather prediction, a stochastic search method that explores ...
VERIFICATION USING TIMED AUTOMATA
Finite automata and temporal logics have been used extensively to formally verify qualitative properties of concurrent systems. The properties include deadlock- or livelock-freedom, the eventual occurrence of an event, and the satisfaction of a predicate. The need to reason with absolute time is unnecessary in these applications, whose correctness depends only on the relative ordering of the associated events and actions.
Weighted tree transducers have been proposed as useful formal models for representing syntactic natural language processing applications, but there has been little description of inference algorithms for these automata beyond formal foundations. We give a detailed description of algorithms for application of cascades of weighted tree transducers to weighted tree acceptors, connecting formal theory with actual practice.
Foma is a compiler, programming language, and C library for constructing ﬁnite-state automata and transducers for various uses. It has speciﬁc support for many natural language processing applications such as producing morphological and phonological analyzers. Foma is largely compatible with the Xerox/PARC ﬁnite-state toolkit. It also embraces Unicode fully and supports various different formats for specifying regular expressions: the Xerox/PARC format, a Perl-like format, and a mathematical format that takes advantage of the ‘Mathematical Operators’ Unicode block. ...
Recent text and speech processing applications such as speech mining raise new and more general problems related to the construction of language models. We present and describe in detail several new and efﬁcient algorithms to address these more general problems and report experimental results demonstrating their usefulness.