Patterns Model – View – Controller defines a one-to-many dependency between objects so that when one object changes state, all its dependents are notified and updated automatically. Design Patterns Model – View – Controller provides about history, observer pattern, observer class diagram, transactions happen, observer rocks, architecture diagram, advantages, problems.
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HVAC systems are sized to satisfy a set of design conditions, which
are selected to generate a maximum load. Because these design conditions
prevail during only a few hours each year, the HVAC equipment
must operate most of the time at less than rated capacity. The
function of the control system is to adjust the equipment capacity to
match the load.
Ethan Marcotte wrote an introductory article about the approach,
“Responsive Web Design,” for A List Apart. It stems from the notion of
responsive architectural design, whereby a room or space automatically
adjusts to the number and flow of people within it:
“Recently, an emergent discipline called “responsive architecture” has
begun asking how physical spaces can respond to the presence of
people passing through them.
Design for assembly is a process by which products are designed with ease of assembly in mind. If a product contains fewer parts it will take less time to assemble, thereby reducing assembly costs. In addition, if the parts are provided with features which make it easier to grasp, move, orient and insert them, this will also reduce assembly time and assembly costs. The reduction of the number of parts in an assembly has the added benefit of generally reducing the total cost of parts in the assembly. This is usually where the major cost benefits of the application of...
Logic for Computer Science" provides an introduction to mathematical logic, with emphasis on proof theory and procedures for constructing formal proofs of formulae algorithmically. It is designed primarily for students, computer scientists, and, more generally, for mathematically inclined readers interested in the formalization of proofs and the foundations of automatic theorem proving. Since the main emphasis of the text is on the study of proof systems and algorithmic methods for constructing proofs, it contains features rarely found in other texts on logic.
(BQ) Addressing design for automated and manual assembly processes, Assembly Automation and Product Design, Second Edition examines assembly automation in parallel with product design. The author enumerates the components, processes, performance, and comparative economics of several types of automatic assembly systems.
Radio Frequency Identifi cation (RFID) is a modern wireless data transmission and reception
technique for applications including automatic identifi cation, asset tracking
and security surveillance. As barcodes and other means of identifi cation and asset
tracking are inadequate for recent demands, RFID technology has att racted interest for
applications such as logistics, supply chain management, asset tracking, and security
In recent years the marine transportation system has come under increasing
attention. Among the concerns are its safety and efficiency, prevention of
and response to ship-caused pollution, and the use of vessels for inimical
purposes, ranging from simple lawbreaking (such as smuggling) to serving
as a vehicle or target for terrorist acts. Over the past two decades, automatic
identification systems (AIS) have been developed in response to these concerns,
and much work has been done to define AIS technical and communication
This paper introduces a method for the semi-automatic generation of grammar test items by applying Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. Based on manually-designed patterns, sentences gathered from the Web are transformed into tests on grammaticality. The method involves representing test writing knowledge as test patterns, acquiring authentic sentences on the Web, and applying generation strategies to transform sentences into items.
In this paper, we deﬁne a new type of summary for sentiment analysis: a singlesentence summary that consists of a supporting sentence that conveys the overall sentiment of a review as well as a convincing reason for this sentiment. We present a system for extracting supporting sentences from online product reviews, based on a simple and unsupervised method. We design a novel comparative evaluation method for summarization, using a crowdsourcing service.
This paper presents a novel metric-based framework for the task of automatic taxonomy induction. The framework incrementally clusters terms based on ontology metric, a score indicating semantic distance; and transforms the task into a multi-criteria optimization based on minimization of taxonomy structures and modeling of term abstractness. It combines the strengths of both lexico-syntactic patterns and clustering through incorporating heterogeneous features. The flexible design of the framework allows a further study on which features are the best for the task under various conditions. ...
Starting from the assumption that machine translation (MT) should be based on theoretically s o u n d grounds, we argue that, given the state of the a r t , the only v i a b l e solution for the designer of software tools for MT, is to provide the linguists building the MT system with a generator of highly specialized, problem oriented systems. We propose that such theory sensitive systems be generated automatically by supplying a set of definitions to a kernel software, of which we give an informal description in the paper. We give...
Kamp's Discourse Representation T h e o r y is a major breakthrough regarding the systematic translation of natural language discourse into logical form. W e have therefore chosen to m a r r y the User Specialty Languages System, which was originally designed as a natural language frontend to a relational database system, with this n e w theory. In the paper w e try to s h o w taking - for the sake of simplicity - Kemp's fragment of English h o w this is achieved.
The paper presents the general design and the f i r s t results of a research project whose long term goal is to develop and implement ALICE, an experimental system capable of augmenting i t s knowledge base by processing natural language texts. ALICE (an acronym for Automatic Learning and Inference Computerized Engine) is an attempt to model the cognitive processes that occur in humans when they learn a series of descriptive texts and reason about what they have learned.
To date, few attempts have been made to develop and validate methods for automatic evaluation of linguistic quality in text summarization. We present the ﬁrst systematic assessment of several diverse classes of metrics designed to capture various aspects of well-written text. We train and test linguistic quality models on consecutive years of NIST evaluation data in order to show the generality of results. For grammaticality, the best results come from a set of syntactic features.
Semantic relatedness is a very important factor for the coreference resolution task. To obtain this semantic information, corpusbased approaches commonly leverage patterns that can express a speciﬁc semantic relation. The patterns, however, are designed manually and thus are not necessarily the most effective ones in terms of accuracy and breadth. To deal with this problem, in this paper we propose an approach that can automatically ﬁnd the effective patterns for coreference resolution.
This paper describes a Verb Phrase Ellipsis (VPE) detection system, built for robustness, accuracy and domain independence. The system is corpus-based, and uses machine learning techniques on free text that has been automatically parsed. Tested on a mixed corpus comprising a range of genres, the system achieves a 70% F1-score. This system is designed as the ﬁrst stage of a complete VPE resolution system that is input free text, detects VPEs, and proceeds to ﬁnd the antecedents and resolve them. ...
This paper addresses a problem that may arise in c]assificatzon tasks: the design of procedures for matching an instance with a set ~f criteria for class membership in such a way as to permit the intelligent handling ~f inexact, as well as exact matches. An inexact match is a comparlson between an instance and a set of criteria (or a second instance) which has the result that some, but not all, of the criteria described (or exemplified) in the second are found to be satisfied in the first. An exact match is such a comparison for which all of...
Knowledge-Based Report Generation is a technique for automatically generating natural language reports from computer databases. It is so named because it applies knowledge-based expert systems software to the problem of text generation. The first application of the technique, a system for generating natural language stock reports from a daily stock quotes database, is partially implemented.