Methods of sheet metal processes such as stretching, shearing, blanking, bending, deep drawing, redrawing are introduced. • Variables in sheet forming process will be discussed together with formability and test methods. • Defects occurring during the forming process will be emphasised. The solutions to such defect problems will also be given.
This chapter provides fundamental of metal working process for forging in order to understand mathematical approaches used in the calculation of applied forging loads required to cause plastic deformation to give the final product. • Classification of metal forging methods is also provided with descriptions of defects observed from the forging processes. • The solutions to tackle such defects will also be addressed.
This chapter provides information on different types of metal rolling processes which can also be divided in to hot and cold rolling process. • Mathematical approaches are introduced for the understanding of load calculation in rolling processes. • Finally identification of defects occurring during and its solutions are included.
This chapter aims to provide useful information on different extrusions processes, which can be mainly divided into direct and indirect extrusion processes. This also includes basic background on hydrostatic extrusion, extrusions of tubing and production of seamless pipe and tubing. • Principal background and concept of extrusion will be addressed along with the utilisation of mathematical approaches to understand the calculation of extrusion load.
This chapter aims to provide basic backgrounds of different types of machining processes and highlights on an understanding of important parameters which affects machining of metals. • Mechanics of machining is introduced for the calculation of power used in metal machining operation • Finally defects occurring in the machining processes will be discussed with its solutions. Significant factors influencing economics of machining will also be included to give the optimum machining efficiency.
Bis in die 70er Jahre bestanden Gerätesteuerungen vorwiegend aus Hardware; neue
Funktionen konnten nur durch immer komplexere Hardwareentwicklungen realisiert
werden. Mit der Erfindung des Mikroprozessors Mitte der 70er-Jahre war es
dann erstmals möglich, teure Hardwareentwicklungen durch standardisierte Mikroprozessor-
Hardware plus „billiger“ – da reproduzierbarer – Software zu ersetzen.
Doch die Euphorie hielt nicht lange an.