Autonomic nervous system

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  • Chapter 14 provides knowledge of the autonomic nervous system. In this chapter, you will learn to: Define autonomic nervous system and explain its relationship to the peripheral nervous system; compare the somatic and autonomic nervous systems relative to effectors, efferent pathways, and neurotransmitters released; compare and contrast the functions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions;...

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  • In recent years, all western industrialized countries, and to a growing extent even many developed and developing Asian nations, have witnessed a remarkable growth in numbers of older people [1]. Future projections anticipate continued increases, particularly in numbers of individuals who are 85 years and older [1]. Although US statistics have indicated recent declines in disability trends [2], overall numbers of older individuals living with disability and functional dependence are likely to increase given projected increases in life expectancy [3].

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Neuronal degeneration in autonomic nervous system of Dystonia musculorum mice

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  • Chapter 49 introduce to nervous systems. After completing this unit, you should be able to compare and contrast the nervous systems of: hydra, sea star, planarian, nematode, clam, squid, and vertebrate. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: central nervous system, peripheral nervous system; white matter, gray matter; bipolar disorder and major depression. List the types of glia and their functions, compare the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

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  • Chapter 13 (part d) provides knowledge of motor endings and motor activity. In this chapter, students will be able to compare and contrast the motor endings of somatic and autonomic nerve fibers, outline the three levels of the motor hierarchy, compare the roles of the cerebellum and basal nuclei in controlling motor activity.

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  • Clinical neurophysiology encompasses the application of a wide variety of electrophysiologic methods to the analysis and recording of normal function, as well as to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases involving the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system and muscles. The steady increase in growth of subspecialty knowledge and skill in neurology has led to the need for a compilation of the whole range of physiologic methods applied in each of the major categories of neurologic disease.

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  • Ebook "Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Human Anatomy and Physiology" introduction to the human body, cellular chemistry, cell structure and function, tissues, integumentary system, skeletal system, muscle tissue and mode of contraction, muscular system, nervous tissue, central nervous system, peripheral and autonomic nervous system,... Invite you to refer to the ebook content more learning materials and research.

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  • Hệ thần kinh thực vật (Autonomic Nervous System) là để chỉ những cơ quan hệ thống trong cơ thể chịu sự chi phối của những bộ phận thần kinh hoạt động có tính chất tự động, không theo ý muốn của con người, như là hoạt động thần kinh của loài thực vật như hoạt động của tim, của cơ quan hô hấp, hệ tiêu hóa...

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  • It has long been noted anecdotally that affect, psychological state and neurologic state have influences on inflammatory skin diseases. Disorders such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, acne and rosacea, among many others, are reported to become exacerbated by stress. Furthermore, it is widely believed that stress alters cutaneous immunity. However, mechanisms responsible for these effects have remained incompletely understood. Scientific evidence for an influence of the nervous system on immune and inflammatory processes in the skin has been developed only relatively recently.

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  • Thermoregulation Heat loss occurs through five mechanisms: radiation (55–65% of heat loss), conduction (10–15% of heat loss, but much greater in cold water), convection (increased in the wind), respiration, and evaporation (which are affected by the ambient temperature and the relative humidity). The preoptic anterior hypothalamus normally orchestrates thermoregulation (Chap. 17). The immediate defense of thermoneutrality is via the autonomic nervous system, whereas delayed control is mediated by the endocrine system.

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  • Neural Control The small intestine and colon have intrinsic and extrinsic innervation. The intrinsic innervation, also called the enteric nervous system, comprises myenteric, submucosal, and mucosal neuronal layers. The function of these layers is modulated by interneurons through the actions of neurotransmitter amines or peptides, including acetylcholine, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), opioids, norepinephrine, serotonin, ATP, and nitric oxide. The myenteric plexus regulates smooth-muscle function, and the submucosal plexus affects secretion, absorption, and mucosal blood flow.

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  • Physiology of the Female Sexual Response The female sexual response requires the presence of estrogens. A role for androgens is also likely but less well-established. In the CNS, estrogens and androgens work synergistically to enhance sexual arousal and response. A number of studies report enhanced libido in women during preovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle, suggesting that hormones involved in the ovulatory surge (e.g., estrogens) increase desire. Sexual motivation is heavily influenced by context, including the environment and partner factors.

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  • Clinical neurophysiology is an area of medical practice focused primarily on measuring function in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the autonomic nervous system, and muscles. The specialty identifies and characterizes diseases of these areas, understands their pathophysiology, and, to a limited extent, treats them. Clinical neurophysiology relies entirely on the measurement of ongoing function—either spontaneous or in response to a defined stimulus—in a patient.

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  • Neurogenic shock is shock caused by the sudden loss of the autonomic nervous system signals to the smooth muscle in vessel walls. This can result from severe central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) damage. With the sudden loss of background sympathetic stimulation, the vessels suddenly relax resulting in a sudden decrease in peripheral vascular resistance (vasodilatation) and decreased blood pressure.

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  • Disorders of Vascular Tone or Blood Volume Disorders of vascular tone or blood volume that can cause syncope include the reflex syncopes and a number of conditions resulting in orthostatic intolerance. The reflex syncopes—including neurocardiogenic syncope, situational syncope, and carotid sinus hypersensitivity—share common autonomic nervous system pathophysiologic mechanisms: a cardioinhibitory component (e.g., bradycardia due to increased vagal activity), a vasodepressor component (e.g., inappropriate vasodilatation due to sympathetic withdrawal), or both.

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  • The study of the neurosciences has undergone remarkable growth over the past two decades. To a large extent, such advancements have been made possible through the development of new methodologies, especially in the fields of neuropharmacology, molecular biology, and neuroanatomy. Neuroscience courses presented in medical schools and related schools of health professions generally are unable to cover all the material that has evolved in recent years.

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  • Neurogenic Disorders that affect the sacral spinal cord or the autonomic fibers to the penis preclude nervous system relaxation of penile smooth muscle, thus leading to ED. In patients with spinal cord injury, the degree of ED depends on the completeness and level of the lesion. Patients with incomplete lesions or injuries to the upper part of the spinal cord are more likely to retain erectile capabilities than those with complete lesions or injuries to the lower part.

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  • Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis and Focal Encephalitis The term encephalomyelitis describes an inflammatory process with multifocal involvement of the nervous system, including brain, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. It is often associated with dorsal root ganglia and autonomic dysfunction. For any given patient, the clinical manifestations are determined by the area or areas predominantly involved, but pathology almost always reveals abnormalities (inflammatory infiltrates, neuronal loss, gliosis) beyond the symptomatic regions. ...

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  • The mammalian nervous system is relatively autonomous in lipid metabolism. In particular, Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, and oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the central nervous system, are highly active in lipid synthesis.

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