Average correlations

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  • The industrial reforms of the 1980s and early 1990s were accompanied by financial reforms beginning in the mid-1980s. These increased local financial autonomy and reduced the central government’s budgetary support for most firms. Even today, however, firms apply to the central government for budgetary assistance for their largest capital investments. The overall impact of the full set of reforms has been growth in the manufacturing sector at an average annual rate of fifteen percent since 1978.

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  • By the end of 2000, close to two million immigrants were residing in the Netherlands, of a total population of nearly 16 million. Among the immigrant population, 2,661 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were identified during 1996–2000. Information about country of origin and time since immigration was missing in 3% and 13% of the study patients, respectively, and was accounted for by multiple imputation (five times) to avoid bias in the calculation of incidence rates, relative risks, and confidence intervals (1).

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  • Getting back to 2003, I was still a top producer in sales but simply wanted a change. I’d been selling for too long and had no desire at all to get into sales management. I’ve always had a strong entrepreneurial drive and decided to put my prospecting system in writing and have a try at selling it online. I sat at my computer from a Friday afternoon through Sunday evening with no sleep at all and put my system on paper. Over the next week I recorded two full-length audio CDs to go...

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  • OF all branches of economic science, that part which relates to money and credit has probably the longest history and the most extensive literature. The elementary truths of the Quantity Theory were established at a time when speculation on other types of economic problem had hardly yet begun. By the middle of the nineteenth century when, in the general theory of value, a satis- factory statical system had not yet been established, the pamphlet literature of money and banking was tackling, often with marked success, many of the subtler problems of economic dynamics.

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  • But while there are differences in profitability and target markets, there are not big differences in loan portfolio quality. The top row of Table 3 reports on the quality of loan portfolios for different kinds of institutions, and we show that all in fact do quite well. We focus on nongovernmental organizations, non-bank financial institutions, and banks. For each group, the range of experience is captured with data at the 25th percentile, median, and 75th percentile.

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  • The case for a rise can be put quite simply. An early increase in Bank Rate makes it more likely that the inflation target can be met in two to three years time because it allows for greater subsequent flexibility. If inflationary pressures subsequently prove more severe than the central part of our forecast suggests, then it will be a help to have started to raise interest rates earlier. But if they prove less strong then subsequent increases can be slower than would otherwise be the case. Indeed, if the economy is extremely weak, interest rates can be...

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  • According to a recent view of culture as a dynamic process (Miller 1995; Shaw and Clarke 1998), cultural differences often cause differences in consumer behavior within and across national borders. Referring to the identification of consumer segments across countries, macro-level geographic, political, economic, and cultural data have been typically used (e.g., Helsen et al. 1993; Kale 1995). In fact, to identify market segments, national borders and the study of culture are appropriate as segmentation criteria when consumer behavior is "culture bound" (e.g.

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  • As for formal features, in recent advertisements abstraction is found not as a flat composition of graphical or animated elements, but as a reduction of pho- tographic images to a painterly arrangement of light and colour. However, the arrangement of the visuals based on music harks back to the concept of rhythm so central in the modernist avant-garde.

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  • For subsequent analysis of the specimen, the needles may be rinsed into a physiologic solution, tissue culture medium, transportation medium or proprietary fixative for liquid based processing. Needles should not be re-sheathed using a two handed technique and instead should be discarded directly into an OSHA approved sharps disposal container. 9 For cystic lesions, remove as much fluid as possible. The cyst fluid can be handled as a liquid specimen. If there is a residual mass, the procedure for solid lesions as described above should be followed.

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  • The most commonly used measures of current fertility are the total fertility rate (TFR) and its component age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs). The TFR is an estimate of the average number of births a woman would have at the end of her reproductive years if she bears children at the prevailing age-specific fertility rates throughout her childbearing years (age 15-49). The ASFRs are defined in terms of the number of live births among women in a particular age group divided by the number of woman-years in that age group during the specific period. Figure 4.

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  • The Observatory carries out front-line astronomical research in three key areas of astrophysics, namely: Solar-System Science, Solar Physics, and Stellar and Galactic Astrophysics. Solar-System research en- compasses the dynamical structure, evolution and origin of objects in the inner and outer solar system and comparative planetology and meteor physics.

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  • Product innovation has recently flourished in the ETF market, , as well as in the market for close substitutes of ETFs such as ETNs or ETVs, which are essentially debt products (while ETFs are funds 4 ), extending the asset class beyond its initial plain-vanilla standardised nature. Some new products are archetypes of this trend (leveraged ETFs, inverse ETFs, and leveraged-inverse ETFs 5 ), although as yet they represent only a tiny fraction of the market, around 3% of total. The first ETF of speculative grade corporate loans was also recently launched.

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  • We use three models to estimate health damages from PM10. First, we use an air dispersion model to estimate each source’s contribution to annual average ambient levels of PM10 at several thousand receptor locations in Paso del Norte. Next, we use a health effects model to estimate the number of cases of human mortality and morbidity that result from this pollution each year. Finally, we use a valuation model to calculate the dollar values of these health impacts. This section briefly discusses each of these models. A more detailed discussion is available in Blackman et...

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  • Unfortunately, to our knowledge, direct estimates of Mexican WTP for reductions in the health endpoints considered in this paper are not yet available. Therefore, we use WTP parameters (for adult respiratory symptom days, adult reduced activity days, asthma attacks, and chronic bronchitis) that are based on U.S. studies. But given that average income adjusted for purchasing power parity is approximately four times as high in the United States as in Mexico, Mexican WTP may be lower than American WTP. Cultural factors may also cause WTP in the two countries to differ.

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  • As described in the Section-by-Section analysis below, proposed section 610.4 includes general requirements to ensure that the required disclosures are sufficiently prominent, such as requiring that all audio disclosures be delivered in a slow and deliberate manner. This section also includes requirements that are specific to each of the various media in which advertising may occur. For Internet-based advertisements, for example, proposed section 610.

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  • Every designer produces original work that is covered by copyright protection, and additional work that could possibly be registered under trademark or patent laws. Because of this, every design contract needs to address the issues of ownership and usage of intellectual property. These can be negotiated in a variety ways, based on the nature of the work and the specifi c needs of the client. Preliminary art versus fi nal art There is an important distinction to be made between preliminary and fi nal art.

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  • Both financial market participants and policymakers, such as central banks, closely follow financial market developments. However, the motivation for their interest in the financial markets differs in the sense that investors monitor asset price movements to optimize the risk-return profile on their investments, whereas central banks use financial market prices to infer information about market ex- pectations of economic growth and inflation.

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  • As far as the MDGs are concerned, only 16 percent of countries are on track to meet the child mortality target and, on average, the poorest fifth of the population saw child mortality falling half as fast as the general population (Wagstaff and Claeson 2003). Though not one sub-Saharan African country is on track to meet the child mortality target, overall progress toward reducing child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa was faster in the 1990s than the 1980s. In the developing world overall, most countries are on track to meet the child health goals...

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  • Hopke and co-workers (6), Heidam (7), Henry (8), and Barrie and Barrie (9) applied principal component analysis (PCA) to source identification, but Paatero and Tapper (10, 11) showed that PCA cannot provide a trueminimal variance solution since they are based on an incorrect weighting. In view of the limitations of PCA, a new technique, positive matrix factorization (PMF), was developed for sources identification and apportionment (12).

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  • There may be instances where additional direct regulation of an industry that is already highly regulated (nuclear power, electricity, chemical plants, water treatment) may be warranted. Congress should consider carefully targeted directives for limited regulation of particular critical infrastructures to advance the protection of cybersecurity at these facilities using existing regulators. Any additional regulation should consider the burden on the private sector by requiring agencies to conduct a thorough cost/benefit analysis. ...

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