Lecture Microbiology - Chapter 24: Diseases of the nervous system. This chapter presents the following content: Anatomy review, bacterial diseases of the brain and meninges - meningitis, bacterial meningitis, viral meningitis, viral diseases of the brain and meninges - rabies, tetanus,...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học quốc tế đề tài: A genetic epidemiological model to describe resistance to an endemic bacterial disease in livestock: application to footrot in sheep
(BQ) Part 1 book "BRS Microbiology & Immunolog" presents the following contents: General properties of microorganisms, bacteria, important bacterial genera, bacterial diseases, viruses, system based and situational viral infections.
This comprehensive volume covers the major viral, bacterial and fungal diseases in fi n- and
shellfi shes. It completes the three-volume series on fi sh diseases and disorders; Volume I
(published in 1995) is on parasitic diseases in fi n- and shellfi shes while Volume II (published
in 1998) deals with non-infectious disorders in fi nfi sh. Reviews in the three volumes
are written by international authorities that are actively working in the area or have contributed
greatly to our understanding of specifi c piscine diseases or disorders.
Inflammatory bowel disease research is changing.
Progress in defining and treating these diseases is advancing
in lock step with the furious pace of technological
advances that continue to refine the tools of discovery.
With sequencing of the entire genome completed, genetics
research is providing direction for molecular and immunological
in vivo and in vitro investigation, which in
turn directs the development of targeted therapeutics.
The complement system (Chap. 308) consists of a group of serum proteins functioning as a cooperative, self-regulating cascade of enzymes that adhere to— and in some cases disrupt—the surface of invading organisms. Some of these surface-adherent proteins (e.g., C3b) can then act as opsonins for destruction of microbes by phagocytes. The later, "terminal" components (C7, C8, and C9) can directly kill some bacterial invaders (notably, many of the neisseriae) by forming a membrane attack complex and disrupting the integrity of the bacterial membrane, thus causing bacteriolysis.
Enteric pathogens have developed a variety of tactics to overcome host defenses. Understanding the virulence factors employed by these organisms is important in the diagnosis and treatment of clinical disease.
The number of microorganisms that must be ingested to cause disease varies considerably from species to species. For Shigella, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia, or Entamoeba, as few as 10–100 bacteria or cysts can produce infection, while 105–108Vibrio cholerae organisms must be ingested orally to cause disease.
Periodontal Disease Periodontal disease accounts for more tooth loss than caries, particularly in the elderly. Like dental caries, chronic infection of the gingiva and anchoring structures of the tooth begins with formation of bacterial plaque. The process begins invisibly above the gum line and in the gingival sulcus. Plaque, including mineralized plaque (calculus), is preventable by appropriate dental hygiene, including periodic professional cleaning.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 122. Acute Infectious Diarrheal Diseases and Bacterial Food Poisoning
Acute Infectious Diarrheal Diseases and Bacterial Food Poisoning: Introduction Ranging from mild annoyances during vacations to devastating dehydrating illnesses that can kill within hours, acute gastrointestinal illnesses rank second only to acute upper respiratory illnesses as the most common diseases worldwide.
In the Appendix, we compare the distributions of deaths by cause and by age for the
NDMC and the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The distributions of deaths by cause are
similar, with between 20 and 25 percent of all medically certified deaths attributable to causes
associated with air pollution (respiratory illnesses and cardiovascular disease). Roughly the
same percentage of deaths are attributable to infectious diseases and to perinatal causes. The
distribution of deaths by age group differs somewhat between the NDMC and the National
Medicine is an ever-changing science. Every day we are encountered with the new developments and knowledge in the pathogenesis, mechanism of disease, newer diagnostic modalities, treatment options and new challenges in the management of the various diseases. The same holds true for respiratory diseases with the emergence of new respiratory pathogens having significant impact on the respiratory system.
Given the enormous number of microorganisms ingested with every meal, the normal host must combat a constant influx of potential enteric pathogens. Studies of infections in patients with alterations in defense mechanisms have led to a greater understanding of the variety of ways in which the normal host can protect itself against disease.
The large numbers of bacteria that normally inhabit the intestine act as an important host defense by preventing colonization by potential enteric pathogens.
Status of the Host
Various host factors must be considered in the devising of antibacterial chemotherapy. The host's antibacterial immune function is of importance, particularly as it relates to opsonophagocytic function. Since the major host defense against acute, overwhelming bacterial infection is the polymorphonuclear leukocyte, patients with neutropenia must be treated aggressively and empirically with bactericidal drugs for suspected infection (Chap. 82). Likewise, patients who have deficient humoral immunity (e.g.
Between 15 April and 30 June 1997, 31 previously healthy infants and young children
in Sarawak died after a short febrile illness against a background of an outbreak of
HFMD in the State. Sibu was badly affected during this outbreak as 11 of the death
cases were reported from Sibu followed by Sarikei with 7 death cases.
Surveillance of HFMD was initiated by Sarawak Health Department during this
outbreak of sudden deaths among young children in Sarawak from 6 June 1997. The
surveillance was stopped in December 1997. However, in 1998, following a report of...
Influenza. Even though influenza viruses usually cause URIs
in adults, they are increasingly being recognized as an impor-
tant cause of LRIs in children and perhaps the second most
important cause after RSVs of hospitalization of children with
an ARI (Neuzil and others 2002).Although influenza is consid-
ered infrequent in developing countries, its epidemiology
remains to be investigated thoroughly. The potential burden of
influenza as a cause of death in children is unknown. Influenza
virus type A may cause seasonal outbreaks, and type B may
cause sporadic infection.
Our aim was to evaluate the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease stage on
chest radiographic (CXR) findings among patients with HIV-related pulmonary tuberculosis (TB).
Data are from a prospective multicenter treatment trial for HIV-related TB. Baseline CXR findings
and CD4/ lymphocyte counts were compared among patients with HIV-related TB. Data from
published studies describing CXR findings in HIV-infected patients were reviewed and a pooleddata
analysis was conducted. Of 135 patients with culture-confirmed HIV-related TB, 128 had both
CXR and CD4/ lymphocyte data.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Harrison's infectious disease" presents the following contents: Introduction to infectious diseases, fever and approach to the febrile patient, infections in organ systems, bacterial infections.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Pathology of infectious diseases" presentation of content: Anaerobic bacterial infections; rickettsia, ehrlichia, and anaplasma infections; tuberculosis and infections by nontuberculous mycobacteria, buruli ulcer, dematiaceous fungal infections, parasitic infections,... and other contents.