Sepsis has been defined as a serious condition in which there is a systemic
inflammation secondary to an infectious process. This can progress to a level at which
it results in a complex disorder, leading to multiple organ failure and eventually
death. Although it has been well recognized as one of the top killers worldwide, its
incidence continues to rise dramatically with some studies showing approximately
1,400 daily deaths.
Some experts usually consider sepsis as one of the most challenging conditions
because of its multiple presentations and the variety of its complications. ...
Neonatal sepsis still remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn, particularly in preterm, low birth weight infants. Despite advances in neonatal care, overall case-fatality rates from sepsis may be as high as 50%. Clinical signs of bacterial infection are vague and non-specific, and up to now there exists no easily available, reliable marker of infection despite a large bulk of studies focussing on inflammatory indices in neonatology. Every neonatologist is faced with the uncertainty of under- or over- diagnosing bacterial infection.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 130. Streptococcal and Enterococcal Infections
Streptococcal and Enterococcal Infections: Introduction
Many varieties of streptococci are found as part of the normal flora colonizing the human respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. Several species are important causes of human disease. Group A Streptococcus (GAS, S.
Many varieties of streptococci are found as part of the normal flora colonizing the human respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. Several species are important causes of human disease. Group A Streptococcus (GAS, S. pyogenes) is responsible for streptococcal pharyngitis, one of the most common bacterial infections of school-age children, and for the postinfectious syndromes of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN). Group B Streptococcus (GBS, S.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation DIC is a clinicopathologic syndrome characterized by widespread intravascular fibrin formation in response to excessive blood protease activity that overcomes the natural anticoagulant mechanisms. DIC is associated with several underlying pathologies (Table 110-2). The most common causes are bacterial sepsis, malignant disorders such as solid tumors or acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and obstetric causes. DIC is diagnosed in almost half of pregnant women with abruptio placentae or with amniotic fluid embolism.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Bacterial flagellin elicits widespread innate immune defense mechanisms, apoptotic signaling, and a sepsis-like systemic inflammatory response in mice...
Intravenous nutrition (IVN), also known as parenteral nutrition (PN),
involves the administration of nutrients, electrolytes, minerals and fluid
directly into patients’ veins. It is used in patients whose gastrointestinal
absorption of food and/or fluids is inadequate, unsafe or inaccessible.
Infusing a mixture of nutrients and fluid, however, is not without risk.
Neutrophil Abnormalities A defect in the neutrophil life cycle can lead to dysfunction and compromised host defenses. Inflammation is often depressed, and the clinical result is often recurrent with severe bacterial and fungal infections. Aphthous ulcers of mucous membranes (gray ulcers without pus) and gingivitis and periodontal disease suggest a phagocytic cell disorder. Patients with congenital phagocyte defects can have infections within the first few days of life. Skin, ear, upper and lower respiratory tract, and bone infections are common. Sepsis and meningitis are rare.
Adjunctive treatments may reduce morbidity and mortality and include dexamethasone for bacterial meningitis; intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) for TSS and necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A Streptococcus; low-dose hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone for septic shock; and drotrecogin alfa (activated), also known as recombinant human activated protein C, for meningococcemia and severe sepsis.