Bank capital

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  • First, standard cross-sectional determinants of firms’ capital structures also apply to large, publicly traded banks in the US and Europe, except for banks close to the minimum capital requirement. The sign and significance of the effect of most variables on bank capital structure are identical to the estimates found for non-financial firms. This is true for both book and market leverage, Tier 1 capital, when controlling for risk and macro factors, for US and EU banks examined separately, as well as when examining a series of cross-sectional regressions over time. ...

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  • The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Balance sheet of commercial banks, assets: uses of funds, bank capital and profitability, off-balance-sheet activities, bank risk, liquidity risk, credit risk, interest rate risk, trading risk, other risks.

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  • This chapter presents the following content: Bank management, managing liquidity, managing interest rate risk, managing credit risk, managing market risk, operating risk, managing risk of international operations, bank capital management, management based on forecasts, bank restructuring to manage risks, integrated bank management.

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  • On April 6, 1998, the creation of Citigroup through the combination of Citicorp and Travelers Inc. was announced to the general applause of analysts and financial pundits. The “merger of equals” created the world’s largest financial services firm—largest in market value, product range, and geographic scope. Management claimed that strict attention to the use of capital and rigorous control of costs (a Travelers specialty) could be combined with Citicorp’s uniquely global footprint and retail banking franchise to produce uncommonly good revenue and cost synergies.

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  • The Committee believes that a successful implementation of the revised Framework will provide banks and supervisors with critical experience necessary to address such challenges. The Committee understands that the IRB approach represents a point on the continuum between purely regulatory measures of credit risk and an approach that builds more fully on internal credit risk models. In principle, further movements along that continuum are foreseeable, subject to an ability to address adequately concerns about reliability, comparability, validation, and competitive equity.......

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  • Today’s banking and trading institutions realize they must move and move quickly to capitalize on new business opportunities in wireless banking and trading. Resistance to the implementation of wireless banking can lead to major losses at the business and market share levels. Wireless service soon will be a necessity for the end-user. Although many technological barriers need to be overcome, it is imperative to embrace the change. Wireless banking and trading is only an extension of the product offerings for the financial institutions.

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  • What is investment banking? Is it investing? Is it banking? Really, it is neither. Investment banking, or I-banking, as it is often called, is the term used to describe the business of raising capital for companies and advising them on financing ...

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  • In recent years, enormous strides have been made in the art and science of credit risk measurement and management. Much of the energy in this area has resulted from dissatisfaction with traditional approaches to credit risk measurement and with the current Bank for International Settlements (BIS) regulatory model.

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  • Đừng bỏ lỡ mẫu đơn thông tin ứng viên ngân hàng VIET CAPITAL BANK nếu bạn đang tìm một công việc trong ngân hàng nhé. Chúc các bạn thành công.

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  • In one way or another, business activity must be financed. Without finance to support their fixed assets and working capital requirements, businesses could not exist. There are three primary sources of finance for companies: ● a cash surplus from operating activities ● new equity funding ● borrowing from bank and non-bank sources. Non-bank sources are mainly investors in the capital markets who subscribe for bonds and other securities issued by companies.

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  • What is investment banking? Is it investing? Is it banking? Really, it is neither. Investment banking, or I-banking, as it is often called, is the term used to describe the business of raising capital for companies and advising them on financing and merger alternatives. Capital essentially means money. Companies need cash in order to grow and expand their businesses; investment banks sell securities to public investors in order to raise this cash. These securities can come in the form of stocks or bonds, which we will discuss in depth later....

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  • The number one concern of start-up entrepreneurs and growing small business owners and managers is how to finance their venture. When the personal financial resources of the entrepreneur are exhausted, when the tradition of going to family and friends for “cradle equity” has been thoroughly “worked,” and when incurring personal debt from a bank for a loan is no longer a viable option, then raising private capital can be one of the toughest challenges for many entrepreneurs.

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  • Alternatively, banks may be optimising their capital structure, possibly much like non- financial firms, which would relegate capital requirements to second order importance. Flannery (1994), Myers and Rajan (1998), Diamond and Rajan (2000) and Allen et al. (2009) develop theories of optimal bank capital structure, in which capital requirements are not necessarily binding. Non-binding capital requirements are also explored in the market discipline literature.

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  • The Committee believes that a successful implementation of the revised Framework will provide banks and supervisors with critical experience necessary to address such challenges. The Committee understands that the IRB approach represents a point on the continuum between purely regulatory measures of credit risk and an approach that builds more fully on internal credit risk models. In principle, further movements along that continuum are foreseeable, subject to an ability to address adequately concerns about reliability, comparability, validation, and competitive equity....

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  • The process of bank deleveraging is expected to increase in 2012 with a pipeline of opportunities, such as large loan portfolios, continuing to materialize. With bank capital structures supported through unconventional means, it may require a further uncontrolled external shock to significantly accelerate the deleveraging process. Opportunities for investors will, however, continue to emerge with capital strategy expected to be a key driver of an increase in transaction activity.

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  • The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. Use of the term “country” does not imply any judgment by the authors or ADB as to the legal or

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  • One motivation that was lacking in the United States was the need to help finance the national government. 7 In fact, the absence of a sizable outstanding national debt posed a problem in designing a system that would not compete with commercial bank lending activities. Sensitivity was high, as well, to the possibility that a nationwide postal bank might drain funds from local to big-city financial markets.

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  • Together, the empirical facts established in this paper suggest that capital regulation and buffers may only be of second order importance in determining the capital structure of most banks. Hence, our paper sheds new light on the debate whether regulation or market forces determine banks’ capital structures. Barth et al. (2005), Berger et al. (2008) and Brewer et al. (2008) observe that the levels of bank capital are much higher than the regulatory minimum. This could be explained by banks holding capital buffers in excess of the regulatory minimum.

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  • The debate is also reflected in the efforts to reform the regulatory environment in response to the current financial crisis. Brunnermeier et al. (2008) also conceptually distinguish between a regulatory and a market based notion of bank capital. When examining the roots of the crisis, Greenlaw et al. (2008) argue that banks’ active management of their capital structures in relation to internal value at risk, rather than regulatory constraints, was a key destabilising factor.

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  • Regarding banks’ capital structures, the standard view is that capital regulation constitutes an additional, overriding departure from the Modigliani-Miller irrelevance proposition (see for example Berger et al., 1995, Miller, 1995, or Santos, 2001). Commercial banks have deposits that are insured to protect depositors and to ensure financial stability. In order to mitigate the moral-hazard of this insurance, commercial banks must be required to hold a minimum amount of capital.

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