Các kỹ thuật truy nhập với các ứng dụng CTI Gần hai thập kỷ qua, công nghệ CTI (Computer Telephony Integration) đã và đang tạo ra nhiều thông tin gần gũi với con người trên khắp thế giới hơn bao giờ hết bằng sự kết hợp giữa máy tính, hệ thống điện thoại và kỹ thuật thông tin đại chúng.
Phần cứng thiết bị yêu cầu để có thể sử dụng thiết kế cho hệ thống bao gồm: - Một tổng đài PBX có kết nối CO đến tổng đài nhà cung cấp mạng điện thoại. - Một máy tính có cắm các Dialogic. Thông thường thì hay sử dụng card Dialogic D/41EFCI. Card này có các cổng xử lý thoại, cho phép nhận thông tin thoại từ mạng điện thoại. Qua các giao diện đường thuê bao mà các bộ xử lý bên trong có thể thực hiện xử lý tín hiệu thoại và gửi tín hiệu báo hiệu...
Consumer financing have become increasingly important in the private sector of Pakistan for the last two decades. With the new reforms in the banking sector, the marketing of financial products has become very competitive, creating a needfor strategizing the marketing efforts. This study investigates the shift of Pakistani consumers towards the use of plastic money, with emphasis on credit cards. A survey of consumers holding (at least) one or no credit card were used for data collection.
Payment cards in the form of debit cards are usually issued by banks as bank cards with which
customers may also draw on their account balances outside their bank (eg cashless payments at
automatic cashpoints, withdrawals at cash dispensers).
Bank cards as payment cards have evolved since their introduction as guarantee cards for
eurocheques (ec cards) and their main function today is for electronic payments at payment terminals.
Social funds do not operate in a vacuum. The broad trends and changes
occurring in the countries in which social funds operate form a back-
drop for the subsequent discussions and debate to take place during the
next three days of this meeting.
Experiences with social funds show a great deal of heterogeneity. A va-
riety of players are involved in social funds. The content of social funds
programs themselves vary greatly, and views about their efficacy di-
Lecture Money and banking - Lecture 04 introduce a number other forms of payments. The main contents of this lecture include all of the following: Credit card, electronic funds transfer, e-money, stored-value card,...
Virtually any financial arrangement involving the current transfer of resources from a lender to a borrower, with a transfer back at some time in the future, is a form of bond. Car loans, home mortgages, even credit card balances all create a loan from a financial intermediary to an individual making a purchase. Governments and large corporations sell bonds when they need to borrow,... In this lesson will introduce bonds and bonds pricing, inviting you refer.
Professor Wahlen's teaching and research interests focus on financial accounting, financial statement analysis and the capital markets. His research investigates earnings quality and earnings management; earnings volatility as an indicator of risk; fair value accounting for financial instruments; accounting for loss reserve estimates by banks and insurers; stock market efficiency with respect to accounting information; and testing the extent to which future stock returns can be predicted with earnings and other financial statement information. ...
The growth of Bank Credit cards
In recent years, lending associated bank credit cards has been the fastest growth area in consumer lending. Bank credit cards first became popular nearly 30 years ago. At that time, individual banks
Credit cards are a means of exchange, not a
payment. Ultimate payment by the card user occurs
at the end of the month when a cheques is written or
a bank a/c is debited to settle the outstanding
balance. In that respect, credit cards are akin to
trade credit for the users, and a substitute credit long
extended by retailers to customers.
Credit cards are a risky part of banking. Banks have set this up very well in a
way to profit both them and the customer. There is not a perfect thing in this
world and that includes credit card handling. Most people are often terrified
of using credit cards, but there is nothing in this world that does not require
Silas Walter Adams, The Legalized Crime of Banking
The Legalized Crime of Banking and a Constitutional Remedy by Silas Walter Adams
Meador Publishing Company 324 Newbury Street Boston 15, Massachusetts Copyrighted 1958 by Silas Walter Adams Library of Congress Card Number 58-9762 E-Text prepared by Gary Edwards
In the recent past many card issuers have extended the range of tools available on debit cards. A chip
on the card makes offline authorisation of guaranteed card payments possible. In addition, bank cards
can be used as prepaid cards (the GeldKarte system of the ZKA).
As a consequence of the merger between the Europe-wide edc (European debit card) service and the
worldwide Maestro system, since the beginning of 1998 many POS terminals and cash dispensers
throughout the world have been available to holders of ec cards with the Maestro logo.
The retail trade has developed a system (without consulting the banking sector) which makes
payments by bank card possible without any authorisation. This system is known as the electronic
direct debit system (ELV). The customer’s signature on the receipt or an additional document
authorises the dealer to collect the cost of the purchase by direct debit. However, the risks of a direct
debit being returned on account of an objection or lack of cover, or possibly because the card has
been blocked, are borne solely by the retail outlet.
In the past, the government often tried to ensure that we pay "a fair rate" of interest by
implementing usury ceilings or limits on the rates that lenders can charge. During the 1980s
there was a general trend toward eliminating or raising these limits as policy-makers
reacted to the high inflation and record interest rates of the late 1970s. During the early
1990s, however, the trend reversed as some suggested that caps should be placed on credit
card rates, which remained at historically high levels while other key interest rates declined
The Bundesbank is in practice the only means - other than relying on their competitors - for smaller
private banks without a giro network of their own to execute payments intended for other banks on
behalf of their customers.
Since 1982 a combined private national payment transaction company has existed for the German
banking sector, Gesellschaft für Zahlungssysteme mbH (GZS). This is an independent processing
company which ensures the low-cost handling of card-protected payments and develops new
electronic payment systems.
Contributing to the improvement of living conditions, supporting the local economic develop-
ment and building greater social cohesion in the local communities where they operate is an
integral part of savings banks’ identity and one of their distinctive features amongst financial
players. These commitments to society activities, traditionally developed by savings banks, are
however only one of the pillars of savings banks’ broader Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
The rules and regulations of the BSP that govern the credit card operations of the banks and
subsidiary credit card companies are not enough to screen out delinquent borrowers. As a
prudential measure to protect banks and subsidiary credit card companies, the BSP requires
these institutions to set up an appropriate system for managing their risk exposures to credit
card operations and to document these exposures in a complete and concise manner.
This system, designed in cooperation with the banking industry, is based on chipcard technology and
corresponds to the electronic cash system above. The only difference is the possibility of offline
authorisation. An authorisation up to a certain limit laid down individually by the issuing bank is stored
on the bank card’s chip. This amount decreases with each payment and, as long as the remaining
amount is sufficient, transactions are authorised offline. In order to pay, the customers must enter their
PIN, which is validated on the chip.